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Definisi Kompatibilitas Android 2.3

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Daftar isi

1. Perkenalan
2. Sumber Daya
3. Perangkat Lunak
4. Kompatibilitas Kemasan Aplikasi
5. Kompatibilitas Multimedia
6. Kompatibilitas Alat Pengembang
7. Kompatibilitas Perangkat Keras
7.1. Tampilan dan Grafik
7.2. Perangkat masukan
7.3. Sensor
7.4. Konektivitas Data
7.5. Kamera
7.6. Memori dan Penyimpanan
7.7. USB
8. Kompatibilitas Kinerja
9. Kompatibilitas Model Keamanan
10. Pengujian Kompatibilitas Perangkat Lunak
11. Perangkat Lunak yang Dapat Diperbarui
12. Hubungi Kami
Lampiran A - Prosedur Tes Bluetooth

1. Perkenalan

Dokumen ini menyebutkan persyaratan yang harus dipenuhi agar ponsel kompatibel dengan Android 2.3.

Penggunaan "harus", "tidak boleh", "wajib", "harus", "tidak boleh", "seharusnya", "tidak boleh", "disarankan", "boleh" dan "opsional" sesuai dengan standar IETF didefinisikan dalam RFC2119 [ Sumber Daya, 1 ].

Seperti yang digunakan dalam dokumen ini, "pelaksana perangkat" atau "pelaksana" adalah orang atau organisasi yang mengembangkan solusi perangkat keras/perangkat lunak yang menjalankan Android 2.3. Sebuah "implementasi perangkat" atau "implementasi" adalah solusi perangkat keras/lunak yang dikembangkan sedemikian rupa.

Agar dianggap kompatibel dengan Android 2.3, implementasi perangkat HARUS memenuhi persyaratan yang disajikan dalam Definisi Kompatibilitas ini, termasuk dokumen apa pun yang digabungkan melalui referensi.

Jika definisi ini atau pengujian perangkat lunak yang dijelaskan dalam Bagian 10 tidak jelas, ambigu, atau tidak lengkap, merupakan tanggung jawab pelaksana perangkat untuk memastikan kompatibilitas dengan implementasi yang ada. Untuk alasan ini, Proyek Sumber Terbuka Android [ Resources, 3 ] adalah referensi dan implementasi pilihan Android. Implementer perangkat sangat dianjurkan untuk mendasarkan implementasi mereka semaksimal mungkin pada kode sumber "upstream" yang tersedia dari Android Open Source Project. Sementara beberapa komponen secara hipotetis dapat diganti dengan implementasi alternatif, praktik ini sangat tidak disarankan, karena lulus tes perangkat lunak akan menjadi jauh lebih sulit. Ini adalah tanggung jawab pelaksana untuk memastikan kompatibilitas perilaku penuh dengan implementasi Android standar, termasuk dan di luar Compatibility Test Suite. Terakhir, perhatikan bahwa penggantian dan modifikasi komponen tertentu secara eksplisit dilarang oleh dokumen ini.

Harap perhatikan bahwa Definisi Kompatibilitas ini dikeluarkan untuk menyesuaikan dengan pembaruan 2.3.3 ke Android, yaitu API level 10. Definisi ini usang dan menggantikan Definisi Kompatibilitas untuk Android versi 2.3 sebelum 2.3.3. (Artinya, versi 2.3.1 dan 2.3.2 sudah usang.) Perangkat masa depan yang kompatibel dengan Android yang menjalankan Android 2.3 HARUS dikirimkan dengan versi 2.3.3 atau yang lebih baru.

2. Sumber Daya

  1. Tingkat Persyaratan IETF RFC2119: http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt
  2. Ikhtisar Program Kompatibilitas Android: http://source.android.com/compatibility/index.html
  3. Proyek Sumber Terbuka Android: http://source.android.com/
  4. Definisi dan dokumentasi API: http://developer.android.com/reference/packages.html
  5. Referensi Izin Android: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/Manifest.permission.html
  6. referensi android.os.Build: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/os/Build.html
  7. String versi Android 2.3 yang diizinkan: http://source.android.com/compatibility/2.3/versions.html
  8. kelas android.webkit.WebView: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/webkit/WebView.html
  9. HTML5: http://www.whatwg.org/specs/web-apps/current-work/multipage/
  10. Kemampuan offline HTML5: http://dev.w3.org/html5/spec/Overview.html#offline
  11. Tag video HTML5: http://dev.w3.org/html5/spec/Overview.html#video
  12. API geolokasi HTML5/W3C: http://www.w3.org/TR/geolocation-API/
  13. API basis data web HTML5/W3C: http://www.w3.org/TR/webdatabase/
  14. HTML5/W3C IndexedDB API: http://www.w3.org/TR/IndexedDB/
  15. Spesifikasi Mesin Virtual Dalvik: tersedia dalam kode sumber Android, di dalvik/docs
  16. AppWidgets: http://developer.android.com/guide/practices/ui_guidelines/widget_design.html
  17. Pemberitahuan: http://developer.android.com/guide/topics/ui/notifiers/notifications.html
  18. Sumber Daya Aplikasi: http://code.google.com/android/reference/available-resources.html
  19. Panduan gaya ikon Bilah Status: http://developer.android.com/guide/practices/ui_guideline /icon_design.html#statusbarstructure
  20. Manajer Pencarian: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/app/SearchManager.html
  21. Roti panggang: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/widget/Toast.html
  22. Wallpaper Hidup: http://developer.android.com/resources/articles/live-wallpapers.html
  23. Dokumentasi alat referensi (untuk adb, aapt, ddms): http://developer.android.com/guide/developing/tools/index.html
  24. Deskripsi file apk Android: http://developer.android.com/guide/topics/fundamentals.html
  25. File manifes: http://developer.android.com/guide/topics/manifest/manifest-intro.html
  26. Alat pengujian monyet: http://developer.android.com/guide/developing/tools/monkey.html
  27. Daftar Fitur Perangkat Keras Android: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/content/pm/PackageManager.html
  28. Mendukung Banyak Layar: http://developer.android.com/guide/practices/screens_support.html
  29. android.util.DisplayMetrics: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/util/DisplayMetrics.html
  30. android.content.res.Configuration: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/content/res/Configuration.html
  31. Ruang koordinat sensor: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/hardware/SensorEvent.html
  32. Bluetooth API: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/bluetooth/package-summary.html
  33. Protokol Dorong NDEF: http://source.android.com/compatibility/ndef-push-protocol.pdf
  34. MIFARE MF1S503X: http://www.nxp.com/documents/data_sheet/MF1S503x.pdf
  35. MIFARE MF1S703X: http://www.nxp.com/documents/data_sheet/MF1S703x.pdf
  36. MIFARE MF0ICU1: http://www.nxp.com/documents/data_sheet/MF0ICU1.pdf
  37. MIFARE MF0ICU2: http://www.nxp.com/documents/short_data_sheet/MF0ICU2_SDS.pdf
  38. MIFARE AN130511: http://www.nxp.com/documents/application_note/AN130511.pdf
  39. MIFARE AN130411: http://www.nxp.com/documents/application_note/AN130411.pdf
  40. API orientasi kamera: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/hardware/Camera.html#setDisplayOrientation(int)
  41. android.hardware.Camera: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/hardware/Camera.html
  42. Referensi Keamanan dan Izin Android: http://developer.android.com/guide/topics/security/security.html
  43. Aplikasi untuk Android: http://code.google.com/p/apps-for-android

Banyak dari sumber daya ini diturunkan secara langsung atau tidak langsung dari Android 2.3 SDK, dan secara fungsional akan identik dengan informasi dalam dokumentasi SDK tersebut. Dalam kasus apa pun di mana Definisi Kompatibilitas atau Suite Uji Kompatibilitas ini tidak setuju dengan dokumentasi SDK, dokumentasi SDK dianggap otoritatif. Detail teknis apa pun yang diberikan dalam referensi yang disertakan di atas dianggap dengan penyertaan sebagai bagian dari Definisi Kompatibilitas ini.

3. Perangkat Lunak

Platform Android mencakup satu set API terkelola, satu set API asli, dan badan yang disebut API "lunak" seperti sistem Intent dan API aplikasi web. Bagian ini merinci API keras dan lunak yang merupakan bagian integral dari kompatibilitas, serta perilaku teknis dan antarmuka pengguna tertentu lainnya yang relevan. Implementasi perangkat HARUS mematuhi semua persyaratan di bagian ini.

3.1. Kompatibilitas API Terkelola

Lingkungan eksekusi yang dikelola (berbasis Dalvik) adalah kendaraan utama untuk aplikasi Android. Antarmuka pemrograman aplikasi Android (API) adalah kumpulan antarmuka platform Android yang diekspos ke aplikasi yang berjalan di lingkungan VM terkelola. Implementasi perangkat HARUS menyediakan implementasi lengkap, termasuk semua perilaku yang terdokumentasi, dari setiap API terdokumentasi yang diekspos oleh Android 2.3 SDK [ Resources, 4 ].

Implementasi perangkat TIDAK HARUS menghilangkan API terkelola, mengubah antarmuka atau tanda tangan API, menyimpang dari perilaku yang didokumentasikan, atau menyertakan larangan operasi, kecuali jika diizinkan secara khusus oleh Definisi Kompatibilitas ini.

Definisi Kompatibilitas ini mengizinkan beberapa jenis perangkat keras yang Android menyertakan API untuk dihilangkan oleh implementasi perangkat. Dalam kasus seperti itu, API HARUS tetap ada dan berperilaku dengan cara yang wajar. Lihat Bagian 7 untuk persyaratan khusus untuk skenario ini.

3.2. Kompatibilitas API Lunak

Selain API terkelola dari Bagian 3.1, Android juga menyertakan API "lunak" khusus runtime yang signifikan, dalam bentuk hal-hal seperti Maksud, izin, dan aspek serupa dari aplikasi Android yang tidak dapat diterapkan pada waktu kompilasi aplikasi. Bagian ini merinci API "lunak" dan perilaku sistem yang diperlukan untuk kompatibilitas dengan Android 2.3. Implementasi perangkat HARUS memenuhi semua persyaratan yang disajikan di bagian ini.

3.2.1. Izin

Pelaksana perangkat HARUS mendukung dan menerapkan semua konstanta izin seperti yang didokumentasikan oleh halaman referensi Izin [ Sumber Daya, 5 ]. Perhatikan bahwa Bagian 10 mencantumkan persyaratan tambahan yang terkait dengan model keamanan Android.

3.2.2. Membangun Parameter

Android API menyertakan sejumlah konstanta pada kelas android.os.Build [ Resources, 6 ] yang dimaksudkan untuk mendeskripsikan perangkat saat ini. Untuk memberikan nilai yang konsisten dan bermakna di seluruh implementasi perangkat, tabel di bawah ini menyertakan batasan tambahan pada format nilai ini yang HARUS dipatuhi oleh implementasi perangkat.

Parameter Komentar
android.os.Build.VERSION.RELEASE Versi sistem Android yang sedang dijalankan, dalam format yang dapat dibaca manusia. Bidang ini HARUS memiliki salah satu nilai string yang ditentukan di [ Resources, 7 ].
android.os.Build.VERSION.SDK Versi sistem Android yang sedang dijalankan, dalam format yang dapat diakses oleh kode aplikasi pihak ketiga. Untuk Android 2.3, bidang ini HARUS memiliki nilai integer 9.
android.os.Build.VERSION.INCREMENTAL Nilai yang dipilih oleh pelaksana perangkat yang menetapkan build spesifik dari sistem Android yang saat ini dijalankan, dalam format yang dapat dibaca manusia. Nilai ini TIDAK HARUS digunakan kembali untuk berbagai build yang tersedia untuk pengguna akhir. Penggunaan khas bidang ini adalah untuk menunjukkan nomor build atau pengidentifikasi perubahan kontrol sumber mana yang digunakan untuk menghasilkan build. Tidak ada persyaratan pada format khusus bidang ini, kecuali bahwa itu TIDAK BOLEH null atau string kosong ("").
android.os.Build.BOARD Nilai yang dipilih oleh pelaksana perangkat yang mengidentifikasi perangkat keras internal tertentu yang digunakan oleh perangkat, dalam format yang dapat dibaca manusia. Kemungkinan penggunaan bidang ini adalah untuk menunjukkan revisi spesifik dari papan yang memberi daya pada perangkat. Nilai bidang ini HARUS dapat dikodekan sebagai ASCII 7-bit dan cocok dengan ekspresi reguler "^[a-zA-Z0-9.,_-]+$" .
android.os.Build.BRAND Nilai yang dipilih oleh pelaksana perangkat yang mengidentifikasi nama perusahaan, organisasi, individu, dll. yang memproduksi perangkat, dalam format yang dapat dibaca manusia. Kemungkinan penggunaan bidang ini adalah untuk menunjukkan OEM dan/atau operator yang menjual perangkat. Nilai bidang ini HARUS dapat dikodekan sebagai ASCII 7-bit dan cocok dengan ekspresi reguler "^[a-zA-Z0-9.,_-]+$" .
android.os.Build.DEVICE Nilai yang dipilih oleh pelaksana perangkat yang mengidentifikasi konfigurasi spesifik atau revisi bodi (terkadang disebut "desain industri") perangkat. Nilai bidang ini HARUS dapat dikodekan sebagai ASCII 7-bit dan cocok dengan ekspresi reguler "^[a-zA-Z0-9.,_-]+$" .
android.os.Build.FINGERPRINT String yang secara unik mengidentifikasi build ini. Ini HARUS cukup dapat dibaca manusia. Ini HARUS mengikuti template ini:
$(BRAND)/$(PRODUCT)/$(DEVICE):$(VERSION.RELEASE)/$(ID)/$(VERSION.INCREMENTAL):$(TYPE)/$(TAGS)
Sebagai contoh:
acme/mydevice/generic/generic:2.3/ERC77/3359:userdebug/test-keys
Sidik jari TIDAK HARUS menyertakan karakter spasi putih. Jika bidang lain yang disertakan dalam template di atas memiliki karakter spasi, bidang tersebut HARUS diganti dalam sidik jari build dengan karakter lain, seperti karakter garis bawah ("_"). Nilai bidang ini HARUS dapat dikodekan sebagai ASCII 7-bit.
android.os.Build.HOST String yang secara unik mengidentifikasi host tempat build dibangun, dalam format yang dapat dibaca manusia. Tidak ada persyaratan pada format khusus bidang ini, kecuali bahwa itu TIDAK BOLEH null atau string kosong ("").
android.os.Build.ID Pengidentifikasi yang dipilih oleh pelaksana perangkat untuk merujuk ke rilis tertentu, dalam format yang dapat dibaca manusia. Bidang ini bisa sama dengan android.os.Build.VERSION.INCREMENTAL, tetapi HARUS menjadi nilai yang cukup berarti bagi pengguna akhir untuk membedakan antara pembuatan perangkat lunak. Nilai bidang ini HARUS dapat dikodekan sebagai ASCII 7-bit dan cocok dengan ekspresi reguler "^[a-zA-Z0-9.,_-]+$" .
android.os.Build.MODEL Nilai yang dipilih oleh pelaksana perangkat yang berisi nama perangkat yang diketahui pengguna akhir. Ini HARUS dengan nama yang sama di mana perangkat dipasarkan dan dijual kepada pengguna akhir. Tidak ada persyaratan pada format khusus bidang ini, kecuali bahwa itu TIDAK BOLEH null atau string kosong ("").
android.os.Build.PRODUCT Nilai yang dipilih oleh pelaksana perangkat yang berisi nama pengembangan atau nama kode perangkat. HARUS dapat dibaca manusia, tetapi tidak dimaksudkan untuk dilihat oleh pengguna akhir. Nilai bidang ini HARUS dapat dikodekan sebagai ASCII 7-bit dan cocok dengan ekspresi reguler "^[a-zA-Z0-9.,_-]+$" .
android.os.Build.TAGS Daftar tag yang dipisahkan koma yang dipilih oleh pelaksana perangkat yang lebih lanjut membedakan build. Misalnya, "tidak ditandatangani, debug". Nilai bidang ini HARUS dapat dikodekan sebagai ASCII 7-bit dan cocok dengan ekspresi reguler "^[a-zA-Z0-9.,_-]+$" .
android.os.Build.TIME Nilai yang mewakili stempel waktu saat build terjadi.
android.os.Build.TYPE Nilai yang dipilih oleh pelaksana perangkat yang menentukan konfigurasi waktu proses build. Bidang ini HARUS memiliki salah satu nilai yang sesuai dengan tiga konfigurasi runtime Android pada umumnya: "user", "userdebug", atau "eng". Nilai bidang ini HARUS dapat dikodekan sebagai ASCII 7-bit dan cocok dengan ekspresi reguler "^[a-zA-Z0-9.,_-]+$" .
android.os.Build.USER Nama atau ID pengguna pengguna (atau pengguna otomatis) yang membuat build. Tidak ada persyaratan pada format khusus bidang ini, kecuali bahwa itu TIDAK BOLEH null atau string kosong ("").

3.2.3. Kompatibilitas Niat

Android menggunakan Intents untuk mencapai integrasi yang digabungkan secara longgar antar aplikasi. Bagian ini menjelaskan persyaratan yang terkait dengan pola Intent yang HARUS dipenuhi oleh implementasi perangkat. Dengan "dihormati", ini berarti bahwa pelaksana perangkat HARUS menyediakan Aktivitas atau Layanan Android yang menetapkan filter Intent yang cocok dan mengikat serta mengimplementasikan perilaku yang benar untuk setiap pola Intent yang ditentukan.

3.2.3.1. Maksud Aplikasi Inti

Proyek upstream Android mendefinisikan sejumlah aplikasi inti, seperti dialer telepon, kalender, buku kontak, pemutar musik, dan sebagainya. Pelaksana perangkat MUNGKIN mengganti aplikasi ini dengan versi alternatif.

Namun, versi alternatif seperti itu HARUS menghormati pola Intent yang sama yang disediakan oleh proyek upstream. Misalnya, jika perangkat berisi pemutar musik alternatif, perangkat tersebut tetap harus mengikuti pola Intent yang dikeluarkan oleh aplikasi pihak ketiga untuk memilih lagu.

Aplikasi berikut dianggap sebagai aplikasi inti sistem Android:

  • Jam Meja
  • Peramban
  • Kalender
  • Kalkulator
  • Kontak
  • Surel
  • Galeri
  • Pencarian Global
  • Peluncur
  • Musik
  • Pengaturan

Aplikasi sistem Android inti mencakup berbagai Aktivitas, atau komponen Layanan yang dianggap "publik". Artinya, atribut "android:exported" mungkin tidak ada, atau mungkin memiliki nilai "true".

Untuk setiap Aktivitas atau Layanan yang ditentukan di salah satu aplikasi sistem Android inti yang tidak ditandai sebagai non-publik melalui atribut android:exported dengan nilai "false", implementasi perangkat HARUS menyertakan komponen dari jenis yang sama yang mengimplementasikan filter Intent yang sama pola sebagai aplikasi sistem Android inti.

Dengan kata lain, implementasi perangkat MUNGKIN menggantikan aplikasi sistem Android inti; namun, jika ya, implementasi perangkat HARUS mendukung semua pola Intent yang ditentukan oleh setiap aplikasi sistem Android inti yang diganti.

3.2.3.2. Penimpaan Intent

Karena Android adalah platform yang dapat diperluas, pelaksana perangkat HARUS mengizinkan setiap pola Intent yang dirujuk di Bagian 3.2.3.1 untuk diganti oleh aplikasi pihak ketiga. Proyek open source Android hulu memungkinkan ini secara default; pelaksana perangkat TIDAK HARUS melampirkan hak istimewa khusus untuk penggunaan pola Intent ini oleh aplikasi sistem, atau mencegah aplikasi pihak ketiga mengikat dan mengambil kendali atas pola ini. Larangan ini secara khusus mencakup namun tidak terbatas pada penonaktifan antarmuka pengguna "Pemilih" yang memungkinkan pengguna untuk memilih di antara beberapa aplikasi yang semuanya menangani pola Intent yang sama.

3.2.3.3. Ruang Nama Niat

Implementer perangkat TIDAK HARUS menyertakan komponen Android apa pun yang menghormati pola Intent atau Broadcast Intent baru menggunakan ACTION, CATEGORY, atau string kunci lainnya di ruang nama android.*. Implementer perangkat TIDAK HARUS menyertakan komponen Android apa pun yang menghormati pola Intent atau Broadcast Intent baru menggunakan ACTION, CATEGORY, atau string kunci lainnya dalam ruang paket milik organisasi lain. Pelaksana perangkat TIDAK HARUS mengubah atau memperluas pola Intent apa pun yang digunakan oleh aplikasi inti yang tercantum di Bagian 3.2.3.1.

Larangan ini analog dengan yang ditentukan untuk kelas bahasa Java di Bagian 3.6.

3.2.3.4. Maksud Siaran

Aplikasi pihak ketiga mengandalkan platform untuk menyiarkan Intent tertentu untuk memberi tahu mereka tentang perubahan di lingkungan perangkat keras atau perangkat lunak. Perangkat yang kompatibel dengan Android HARUS menyiarkan Intent siaran publik sebagai respons terhadap peristiwa sistem yang sesuai. Maksud Siaran dijelaskan dalam dokumentasi SDK.

3.3. Kompatibilitas API Asli

Kode terkelola yang berjalan di Dalvik dapat memanggil kode asli yang disediakan dalam file .apk aplikasi sebagai file .so ELF yang dikompilasi untuk arsitektur perangkat keras perangkat yang sesuai. Karena kode asli sangat bergantung pada teknologi prosesor yang mendasarinya, Android mendefinisikan sejumlah Antarmuka Biner Aplikasi (ABI) di Android NDK, dalam file docs/CPU-ARCH-ABIS.txt . Jika implementasi perangkat kompatibel dengan satu atau beberapa ABI yang ditentukan, perangkat tersebut HARUS mengimplementasikan kompatibilitas dengan Android NDK, seperti di bawah ini.

Jika implementasi perangkat menyertakan dukungan untuk Android ABI, itu:

  • HARUS menyertakan dukungan untuk kode yang berjalan di lingkungan terkelola untuk memanggil kode asli, menggunakan semantik Java Native Interface (JNI) standar.
  • HARUS kompatibel dengan sumber (yaitu kompatibel dengan header) dan kompatibel dengan biner (untuk ABI) dengan setiap pustaka yang diperlukan dalam daftar di bawah ini
  • HARUS melaporkan secara akurat Application Binary Interface (ABI) asli yang didukung oleh perangkat, melalui android.os.Build.CPU_ABI API
  • HARUS melaporkan hanya ABI yang didokumentasikan dalam Android NDK versi terbaru, dalam file docs/CPU-ARCH-ABIS.txt
  • HARUS dibuat menggunakan kode sumber dan file header yang tersedia di proyek sumber terbuka Android hulu

API kode asli berikut HARUS tersedia untuk aplikasi yang menyertakan kode asli:

  • libc (perpustakaan C)
  • libm (perpustakaan matematika)
  • Dukungan minimal untuk C++
  • antarmuka JNI
  • liblog (pencatatan Android)
  • libz (kompresi Zlib)
  • libdl (penghubung dinamis)
  • libGLESv1_CM.so (OpenGL ES 1.0)
  • libGLESv2.so (OpenGL ES 2.0)
  • libEGL.so (manajemen permukaan OpenGL asli)
  • libjnigraphics.so
  • libOpenSLES.so (Buka dukungan audio Perpustakaan Suara)
  • libandroid.so (dukungan aktivitas Android asli)
  • Dukungan untuk OpenGL, seperti yang dijelaskan di bawah ini

Perhatikan bahwa rilis Android NDK di masa mendatang dapat memperkenalkan dukungan untuk ABI tambahan. Jika implementasi perangkat tidak kompatibel dengan ABI standar yang sudah ada, perangkat tersebut TIDAK HARUS melaporkan dukungan untuk ABI apa pun.

Kompatibilitas kode asli menantang. Untuk alasan ini, harus diulangi bahwa pelaksana perangkat SANGAT dianjurkan untuk menggunakan implementasi upstream dari library yang tercantum di atas untuk membantu memastikan kompatibilitas.

3.4. Kompatibilitas Web

Banyak pengembang dan aplikasi mengandalkan perilaku kelas android.webkit.WebView [ Sumber Daya, 8 ] untuk antarmuka pengguna mereka, sehingga implementasi WebView harus kompatibel di seluruh implementasi Android. Demikian pula, browser web modern yang lengkap merupakan pusat pengalaman pengguna Android. Implementasi perangkat HARUS menyertakan versi android.webkit.WebView yang konsisten dengan perangkat lunak Android upstream, dan HARUS menyertakan browser modern berkemampuan HTML5, seperti yang dijelaskan di bawah.

3.4.1. Kompatibilitas Tampilan Web

Implementasi Android Open Source menggunakan mesin rendering WebKit untuk mengimplementasikan android.webkit.WebView . Karena tidak layak untuk mengembangkan rangkaian pengujian yang komprehensif untuk sistem rendering web, pelaksana perangkat HARUS menggunakan versi hulu WebKit yang spesifik dalam implementasi WebView. Secara khusus:

  • Implementasi perangkat android.webkit.WebView implementasi HARUS didasarkan pada 533.1 WebKit build dari hierarki Android Open Source hulu untuk Android 2.3. Build ini mencakup serangkaian fungsionalitas dan perbaikan keamanan khusus untuk WebView. Pelaksana perangkat MUNGKIN menyertakan penyesuaian untuk implementasi WebKit; namun, penyesuaian tersebut TIDAK HARUS mengubah perilaku WebView, termasuk perilaku rendering.
  • String agen pengguna yang dilaporkan oleh WebView HARUS dalam format ini:
    Mozilla/5.0 (Linux; U; Android $(VERSION); $(LOCALE); $(MODEL) Build/$(BUILD)) AppleWebKit/533.1 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/4.0 Mobile Safari/533.1
    • Nilai string $(VERSION) HARUS sama dengan nilai untuk android.os.Build.VERSION.RELEASE
    • Nilai string $(LOCALE) HARUS mengikuti konvensi ISO untuk kode negara dan bahasa, dan HARUS merujuk ke lokal perangkat yang dikonfigurasi saat ini
    • Nilai string $(MODEL) HARUS sama dengan nilai untuk android.os.Build.MODEL
    • Nilai string $(BUILD) HARUS sama dengan nilai untuk android.os.Build.ID

Komponen WebView HARUS menyertakan dukungan untuk HTML5 [ Resources, 9 ] sebanyak mungkin. Minimal, implementasi perangkat HARUS mendukung setiap API ini yang terkait dengan HTML5 di WebView:

Selain itu, implementasi perangkat HARUS mendukung HTML5/W3C webstorage API [ Resources, 13 ], dan HARUS mendukung HTML5/W3C IndexedDB API [ Resources, 14 ]. Perhatikan bahwa karena badan standar pengembangan web sedang bertransisi untuk mendukung IndexedDB daripada penyimpanan web, IndexedDB diharapkan menjadi komponen yang diperlukan dalam versi Android yang akan datang.

API HTML5, seperti semua API JavaScript, HARUS dinonaktifkan secara default di WebView, kecuali jika pengembang secara eksplisit mengaktifkannya melalui API Android biasa.

3.4.2. Kompatibilitas Peramban

Implementasi perangkat HARUS menyertakan aplikasi Browser mandiri untuk penjelajahan web pengguna umum. Browser mandiri MUNGKIN didasarkan pada teknologi browser selain WebKit. Namun, meskipun aplikasi Browser alternatif digunakan, komponen android.webkit.WebView yang disediakan untuk aplikasi pihak ketiga HARUS didasarkan pada WebKit, seperti yang dijelaskan di Bagian 3.4.1.

Implementasi MUNGKIN mengirimkan string agen pengguna kustom dalam aplikasi Browser mandiri.

Aplikasi Browser mandiri (baik berdasarkan aplikasi Browser WebKit upstream atau pengganti pihak ketiga) HARUS menyertakan dukungan untuk HTML5 [ Resources, 9 ] sebanyak mungkin. Minimal, implementasi perangkat HARUS mendukung setiap API yang terkait dengan HTML5 ini:

Selain itu, implementasi perangkat HARUS mendukung HTML5/W3C webstorage API [ Resources, 13 ], dan HARUS mendukung HTML5/W3C IndexedDB API [ Resources, 14 ]. Perhatikan bahwa karena badan standar pengembangan web sedang bertransisi untuk mendukung IndexedDB daripada penyimpanan web, IndexedDB diharapkan menjadi komponen yang diperlukan dalam versi Android yang akan datang.

3.5. Kompatibilitas Perilaku API

Perilaku setiap jenis API (dikelola, lunak, asli, dan web) harus konsisten dengan implementasi yang disukai dari proyek sumber terbuka Android hulu [ Sumber Daya, 3 ]. Beberapa area kompatibilitas tertentu adalah:

  • Perangkat TIDAK HARUS mengubah perilaku atau semantik dari Intent standar
  • Perangkat TIDAK HARUS mengubah siklus hidup atau semantik siklus hidup dari jenis komponen sistem tertentu (seperti Layanan, Aktivitas, Penyedia Konten, dll.)
  • Perangkat TIDAK HARUS mengubah semantik izin standar

Daftar di atas tidak lengkap. Compatibility Test Suite (CTS) menguji sebagian besar platform untuk kompatibilitas perilaku, tetapi tidak semua. Ini adalah tanggung jawab pelaksana untuk memastikan kompatibilitas perilaku dengan Android Open Source Project. Untuk alasan ini, pelaksana perangkat HARUS menggunakan kode sumber yang tersedia melalui Android Open Source Project jika memungkinkan, daripada mengimplementasikan kembali bagian penting dari sistem.

3.6. Ruang Nama API

Android mengikuti konvensi namespace paket dan kelas yang ditentukan oleh bahasa pemrograman Java. Untuk memastikan kompatibilitas dengan aplikasi pihak ketiga, pelaksana perangkat TIDAK HARUS melakukan modifikasi terlarang (lihat di bawah) pada ruang nama paket ini:

  • Jawa.*
  • javax.*
  • matahari.*
  • android.*
  • com.android.*

Modifikasi yang dilarang meliputi:

  • Implementasi perangkat TIDAK HARUS memodifikasi API yang diekspos secara publik pada platform Android dengan mengubah metode atau tanda tangan kelas apa pun, atau dengan menghapus kelas atau bidang kelas.
  • Pelaksana perangkat DAPAT memodifikasi implementasi API yang mendasarinya, tetapi modifikasi tersebut TIDAK HARUS berdampak pada perilaku yang dinyatakan dan tanda tangan bahasa Java dari API apa pun yang diekspos secara publik.
  • Pelaksana perangkat TIDAK HARUS menambahkan elemen apa pun yang terbuka secara publik (seperti kelas atau antarmuka, atau bidang atau metode ke kelas atau antarmuka yang ada) ke API di atas.

"Elemen yang diekspos secara publik" adalah konstruksi apa pun yang tidak didekorasi dengan penanda "@hide" seperti yang digunakan dalam kode sumber Android upstream. Dengan kata lain, pelaksana perangkat TIDAK HARUS mengekspos API baru atau mengubah API yang ada di ruang nama yang disebutkan di atas. Pelaksana perangkat DAPAT membuat modifikasi internal saja, tetapi modifikasi tersebut TIDAK HARUS diiklankan atau diekspos ke pengembang.

Pelaksana perangkat DAPAT menambahkan API khusus, tetapi API semacam itu TIDAK HARUS berada di ruang nama yang dimiliki oleh atau merujuk ke organisasi lain. Misalnya, pelaksana perangkat TIDAK HARUS menambahkan API ke com.google.* atau namespace serupa; hanya Google yang dapat melakukannya. Demikian pula, Google TIDAK HARUS menambahkan API ke ruang nama perusahaan lain. Selain itu, jika implementasi perangkat menyertakan API khusus di luar ruang nama Android standar, API tersebut HARUS dikemas dalam pustaka bersama Android sehingga hanya aplikasi yang secara eksplisit menggunakannya (melalui mekanisme <uses-library> ) yang terpengaruh oleh peningkatan penggunaan memori dari API semacam itu.

Jika pelaksana perangkat mengusulkan untuk meningkatkan salah satu ruang nama paket di atas (seperti dengan menambahkan fungsionalitas baru yang berguna ke API yang ada, atau menambahkan API baru), pelaksana HARUS mengunjungi source.android.com dan memulai proses untuk memberikan kontribusi perubahan dan kode, sesuai dengan informasi di situs itu.

Perhatikan bahwa pembatasan di atas sesuai dengan konvensi standar untuk penamaan API dalam bahasa pemrograman Java; bagian ini hanya bertujuan untuk memperkuat konvensi tersebut dan membuatnya mengikat melalui penyertaan dalam definisi kompatibilitas ini.

3.7. Kompatibilitas Mesin Virtual

Implementasi perangkat HARUS mendukung spesifikasi bytecode Dalvik Executable (DEX) penuh dan semantik Mesin Virtual Dalvik [ Resources, 15 ].

Implementasi perangkat dengan layar yang diklasifikasikan sebagai kepadatan sedang atau rendah HARUS mengonfigurasi Dalvik untuk mengalokasikan setidaknya 16 MB memori ke setiap aplikasi. Implementasi perangkat dengan layar yang diklasifikasikan sebagai high-density atau extra-high-density HARUS mengonfigurasi Dalvik untuk mengalokasikan setidaknya 24MB memori ke setiap aplikasi. Perhatikan bahwa implementasi perangkat MUNGKIN mengalokasikan lebih banyak memori daripada angka-angka ini.

3.8. Kompatibilitas Antarmuka Pengguna

Platform Android menyertakan beberapa API pengembang yang memungkinkan pengembang untuk menghubungkan ke antarmuka pengguna sistem. Implementasi perangkat HARUS menggabungkan API UI standar ini ke dalam antarmuka pengguna khusus yang mereka kembangkan, seperti yang dijelaskan di bawah ini.

3.8.1. Widget

Android mendefinisikan tipe komponen dan API serta siklus hidup terkait yang memungkinkan aplikasi mengekspos "AppWidget" ke pengguna akhir [ Sumber Daya, 16 ]. Rilis referensi Android Open Source menyertakan aplikasi Launcher yang menyertakan elemen antarmuka pengguna yang memungkinkan pengguna untuk menambahkan, melihat, dan menghapus AppWidgets dari layar beranda.

Pelaksana perangkat DAPAT mengganti alternatif untuk Peluncur referensi (yaitu layar beranda). Peluncur Alternatif HARUS menyertakan dukungan bawaan untuk AppWidgets, dan memaparkan elemen antarmuka pengguna untuk menambah, mengonfigurasi, melihat, dan menghapus AppWidgets langsung di dalam Peluncur. Peluncur Alternatif MUNGKIN menghilangkan elemen antarmuka pengguna ini; namun, jika dihilangkan, pelaksana perangkat HARUS menyediakan aplikasi terpisah yang dapat diakses dari Peluncur yang memungkinkan pengguna untuk menambah, mengonfigurasi, melihat, dan menghapus AppWidgets.

3.8.2. Pemberitahuan

Android menyertakan API yang memungkinkan pengembang memberi tahu pengguna tentang peristiwa penting [ Sumber Daya, 17 ]. Pelaksana perangkat HARUS memberikan dukungan untuk setiap kelas notifikasi yang ditentukan; khusus: suara, getaran, cahaya dan status bar.

Selain itu, implementasi HARUS merender dengan benar semua sumber daya (ikon, file suara, dll.) yang disediakan di dalam API [ Resources, 18 ], atau dalam panduan gaya ikon Status Bar [ Resources, 19 ]. Pelaksana perangkat MUNGKIN memberikan pengalaman pengguna alternatif untuk pemberitahuan daripada yang disediakan oleh implementasi Android Open Source referensi; namun, sistem notifikasi alternatif tersebut HARUS mendukung sumber notifikasi yang ada, seperti di atas.

Android menyertakan API [ Resources, 20 ] yang memungkinkan pengembang untuk memasukkan pencarian ke dalam aplikasi mereka, dan mengekspos data aplikasi mereka ke dalam pencarian sistem global. Secara umum, fungsi ini terdiri dari satu antarmuka pengguna di seluruh sistem yang memungkinkan pengguna memasukkan kueri, menampilkan saran saat pengguna mengetik, dan menampilkan hasil. Android API memungkinkan pengembang menggunakan kembali antarmuka ini untuk menyediakan penelusuran dalam aplikasi mereka sendiri, dan memungkinkan pengembang menyediakan hasil ke antarmuka pengguna penelusuran global umum.

Implementasi perangkat HARUS menyertakan antarmuka pengguna pencarian tunggal, bersama, di seluruh sistem yang mampu memberikan saran waktu nyata dalam menanggapi masukan pengguna. Implementasi perangkat HARUS mengimplementasikan API yang memungkinkan pengembang menggunakan kembali antarmuka pengguna ini untuk menyediakan penelusuran dalam aplikasi mereka sendiri. Implementasi perangkat HARUS mengimplementasikan API yang memungkinkan aplikasi pihak ketiga menambahkan saran ke kotak pencarian saat dijalankan dalam mode pencarian global. Jika tidak ada aplikasi pihak ketiga yang diinstal yang menggunakan fungsi ini, perilaku default HARUS menampilkan hasil dan saran mesin telusur web.

Implementasi perangkat MUNGKIN mengirimkan antarmuka pengguna pencarian alternatif, tetapi HARUS menyertakan tombol pencarian khusus keras atau lunak, yang dapat digunakan kapan saja dalam aplikasi apa pun untuk menjalankan kerangka kerja pencarian, dengan perilaku yang disediakan dalam dokumentasi API.

3.8.4. bersulang

Aplikasi dapat menggunakan "Toast" API (didefinisikan dalam [ Resources, 21 ]) untuk menampilkan string non-modal pendek kepada pengguna akhir, yang menghilang setelah periode waktu yang singkat. Implementasi perangkat HARUS menampilkan Toast dari aplikasi ke pengguna akhir dalam beberapa cara visibilitas tinggi.

3.8.5. Wallpaper Hidup

Android mendefinisikan tipe komponen dan API serta siklus hidup yang sesuai yang memungkinkan aplikasi mengekspos satu atau lebih "Wallpaper Animasi" kepada pengguna akhir [ Sumber Daya, 22 ]. Live Wallpaper adalah animasi, pola, atau gambar serupa dengan kemampuan input terbatas yang ditampilkan sebagai wallpaper, di belakang aplikasi lain.

Perangkat keras dianggap mampu menjalankan wallpaper hidup dengan andal jika dapat menjalankan semua wallpaper hidup, tanpa batasan fungsionalitas, pada framerate yang wajar tanpa pengaruh buruk pada aplikasi lain. Jika keterbatasan pada perangkat keras menyebabkan wallpaper dan/atau aplikasi mogok, tidak berfungsi, menggunakan CPU atau daya baterai yang berlebihan, atau berjalan pada frekuensi gambar yang sangat rendah, perangkat keras dianggap tidak mampu menjalankan wallpaper hidup. Sebagai contoh, beberapa wallpaper hidup mungkin menggunakan konteks Open GL 1.0 atau 2.0 untuk merender kontennya. Wallpaper hidup tidak akan berjalan dengan andal pada perangkat keras yang tidak mendukung banyak konteks OpenGL karena penggunaan wallpaper hidup dari konteks OpenGL dapat bertentangan dengan aplikasi lain yang juga menggunakan konteks OpenGL.

Implementasi perangkat yang mampu menjalankan wallpaper hidup dengan andal seperti dijelaskan di atas HARUS menerapkan wallpaper hidup. Implementasi perangkat ditentukan untuk tidak menjalankan wallpaper hidup dengan andal seperti yang dijelaskan di atas TIDAK HARUS menerapkan wallpaper hidup.

4. Kompatibilitas Kemasan Aplikasi

Implementasi perangkat HARUS menginstal dan menjalankan file ".apk" Android seperti yang dihasilkan oleh alat "aapt" yang disertakan dalam SDK Android resmi [ Sumber Daya, 23 ].

Devices implementations MUST NOT extend either the .apk [ Resources, 24 ], Android Manifest [ Resources, 25 ], or Dalvik bytecode [ Resources, 15 ] formats in such a way that would prevent those files from installing and running correctly on other compatible devices. Device implementers SHOULD use the reference upstream implementation of Dalvik, and the reference implementation's package management system.

5. Kompatibilitas Multimedia

Device implementations MUST fully implement all multimedia APIs. Device implementations MUST include support for all multimedia codecs described below, and SHOULD meet the sound processing guidelines described below. Device implementations MUST include at least one form of audio output, such as speakers, headphone jack, external speaker connection, etc.

5.1. Codec Media

Device implementations MUST support the multimedia codecs as detailed in the following sections. All of these codecs are provided as software implementations in the preferred Android implementation from the Android Open-Source Project.

Please note that neither Google nor the Open Handset Alliance make any representation that these codecs are unencumbered by third-party patents. Those intending to use this source code in hardware or software products are advised that implementations of this code, including in open source software or shareware, may require patent licenses from the relevant patent holders.

The tables below do not list specific bitrate requirements for most video codecs. The reason for this is that in practice, current device hardware does not necessarily support bitrates that map exactly to the required bitrates specified by the relevant standards. Instead, device implementations SHOULD support the highest bitrate practical on the hardware, up to the limits defined by the specifications.

5.1.1. Media Decoders

Device implementations MUST include an implementation of an decoder for each codec and format described in the table below. Note that decoders for each of these media types are provided by the upstream Android Open-Source Project.

Audio
Name Details File/Container Format
AAC LC/LTP Mono/Stereo content in any combination of standard bit rates up to 160 kbps and sampling rates between 8 to 48kHz 3GPP (.3gp) and MPEG-4 (.mp4, .m4a). No support for raw AAC (.aac)
HE-AACv1 (AAC+)
HE-AACv2 (enhanced AAC+)
AMR-NB 4.75 to 12.2 kbps sampled @ 8kHz 3GPP (.3gp)
AMR-WB 9 rates from 6.60 kbit/s to 23.85 kbit/s sampled @ 16kHz 3GPP (.3gp)
MP3 Mono/Stereo 8-320Kbps constant (CBR) or variable bit-rate (VBR) MP3 (.mp3)
MIDI MIDI Type 0 and 1. DLS Version 1 and 2. XMF and Mobile XMF. Support for ringtone formats RTTTL/RTX, OTA, and iMelody Type 0 and 1 (.mid, .xmf, .mxmf). Also RTTTL/RTX (.rtttl, .rtx), OTA (.ota), and iMelody (.imy)
Ogg Vorbis Ogg (.ogg)
PCM 8- and 16-bit linear PCM (rates up to limit of hardware) WAVE (.wav)
Image
JPEG base+progressive
GIF
PNG
BMP
Video
H.263 3GPP (.3gp) files
H.264 3GPP (.3gp) and MPEG-4 (.mp4) files
MPEG4 Simple Profile 3GPP (.3gp) file

5.1.2. Media Encoders

Device implementations SHOULD include encoders for as many of the media formats listed in Section 5.1.1. as possible. However, some encoders do not make sense for devices that lack certain optional hardware; for instance, an encoder for the H.263 video does not make sense, if the device lacks any cameras. Device implementations MUST therefore implement media encoders according to the conditions described in the table below.

See Section 7 for details on the conditions under which hardware may be omitted by device implementations.

Audio
Name Details File/Container Format Conditions
AMR-NB 4.75 to 12.2 kbps sampled @ 8kHz 3GPP (.3gp) Device implementations that include microphone hardware and define android.hardware.microphone MUST include encoders for these audio formats.
AMR-WB 9 rates from 6.60 kbit/s to 23.85 kbit/s sampled @ 16kHz 3GPP (.3gp)
AAC LC/LTP Mono/Stereo content in any combination of standard bit rates up to 160 kbps and sampling rates between 8 to 48kHz 3GPP (.3gp) and MPEG-4 (.mp4, .m4a).
Image JPEG base+progressive All device implementations MUST include encoders for these image formats, as Android 2.3 includes APIs that applications can use to programmatically generate files of these types.
PNG
Video H.263 3GPP (.3gp) files Device implementations that include camera hardware and define either android.hardware.camera or android.hardware.camera.front MUST include encoders for these video formats.

In addition to the encoders listed above, device implementations SHOULD include an H.264 encoder. Note that the Compatibility Definition for a future version is planned to change this requirement to "MUST". That is, H.264 encoding is optional in Android 2.3 but will be required by a future version. Existing and new devices that run Android 2.3 are very strongly encouraged to meet this requirement in Android 2.3 , or they will not be able to attain Android compatibility when upgraded to the future version.

5.2. Rekaman audio

When an application has used the android.media.AudioRecord API to start recording an audio stream, device implementations SHOULD sample and record audio with each of these behaviors:

  • Noise reduction processing, if present, SHOULD be disabled.
  • Automatic gain control, if present, SHOULD be disabled.
  • The device SHOULD exhibit approximately flat amplitude versus frequency characteristics; specifically, ±3 dB, from 100 Hz to 4000 Hz
  • Audio input sensitivity SHOULD be set such that a 90 dB sound power level (SPL) source at 1000 Hz yields RMS of 5000 for 16-bit samples.
  • PCM amplitude levels SHOULD linearly track input SPL changes over at least a 30 dB range from -18 dB to +12 dB re 90 dB SPL at the microphone.
  • Total harmonic distortion SHOULD be less than 1% from 100 Hz to 4000 Hz at 90 dB SPL input level.

Note: while the requirements outlined above are stated as "SHOULD" for Android 2.3, the Compatibility Definition for a future version is planned to change these to "MUST". That is, these requirements are optional in Android 2.3 but will be required by a future version. Existing and new devices that run Android 2.3 are very strongly encouraged to meet these requirements in Android 2.3 , or they will not be able to attain Android compatibility when upgraded to the future version.

5.3. Latensi Audio

Audio latency is broadly defined as the interval between when an application requests an audio playback or record operation, and when the device implementation actually begins the operation. Many classes of applications rely on short latencies, to achieve real-time effects such sound effects or VOIP communication. Device implementations that include microphone hardware and declare android.hardware.microphone SHOULD meet all audio latency requirements outlined in this section. See Section 7 for details on the conditions under which microphone hardware may be omitted by device implementations.

For the purposes of this section:

  • "cold output latency" is defined to be the interval between when an application requests audio playback and when sound begins playing, when the audio system has been idle and powered down prior to the request
  • "warm output latency" is defined to be the interval between when an application requests audio playback and when sound begins playing, when the audio system has been recently used but is currently idle (that is, silent)
  • "continuous output latency" is defined to be the interval between when an application issues a sample to be played and when the speaker physically plays the corresponding sound, while the device is currently playing back audio
  • "cold input latency" is defined to be the interval between when an application requests audio recording and when the first sample is delivered to the application via its callback, when the audio system and microphone has been idle and powered down prior to the request
  • "continuous input latency" is defined to be when an ambient sound occurs and when the sample corresponding to that sound is delivered to a recording application via its callback, while the device is in recording mode

Using the above definitions, device implementations SHOULD exhibit each of these properties:

  • cold output latency of 100 milliseconds or less
  • warm output latency of 10 milliseconds or less
  • continuous output latency of 45 milliseconds or less
  • cold input latency of 100 milliseconds or less
  • continuous input latency of 50 milliseconds or less

Note: while the requirements outlined above are stated as "SHOULD" for Android 2.3, the Compatibility Definition for a future version is planned to change these to "MUST". That is, these requirements are optional in Android 2.3 but will be required by a future version. Existing and new devices that run Android 2.3 are very strongly encouraged to meet these requirements in Android 2.3 , or they will not be able to attain Android compatibility when upgraded to the future version.

If a device implementation meets the requirements of this section, it MAY report support for low-latency audio, by reporting the feature "android.hardware.audio.low-latency" via the android.content.pm.PackageManager class. [ Resources, 27 ] Conversely, if the device implementation does not meet these requirements it MUST NOT report support for low-latency audio.

6. Developer Tool Compatibility

Device implementations MUST support the Android Developer Tools provided in the Android SDK. Specifically, Android-compatible devices MUST be compatible with:

  • Android Debug Bridge (known as adb) [ Resources, 23 ]
    Device implementations MUST support all adb functions as documented in the Android SDK. The device-side adb daemon SHOULD be inactive by default, but there MUST be a user-accessible mechanism to turn on the Android Debug Bridge.
  • Dalvik Debug Monitor Service (known as ddms) [ Resources, 23 ]
    Device implementations MUST support all ddms features as documented in the Android SDK. As ddms uses adb , support for ddms SHOULD be inactive by default, but MUST be supported whenever the user has activated the Android Debug Bridge, as above.
  • Monkey [ Resources, 26 ]
    Device implementations MUST include the Monkey framework, and make it available for applications to use.

Most Linux-based systems and Apple Macintosh systems recognize Android devices using the standard Android SDK tools, without additional support; however Microsoft Windows systems typically require a driver for new Android devices. (For instance, new vendor IDs and sometimes new device IDs require custom USB drivers for Windows systems.) If a device implementation is unrecognized by the adb tool as provided in the standard Android SDK, device implementers MUST provide Windows drivers allowing developers to connect to the device using the adb protocol. These drivers MUST be provided for Windows XP, Windows Vista, and Windows 7, in both 32-bit and 64-bit versions.

7. Hardware Compatibility

Android is intended to enable device implementers to create innovative form factors and configurations. At the same time Android developers write innovative applications that rely on the various hardware and features available through the Android APIs. The requirements in this section strike a balance between innovations available to device implementers, and the needs of developers to ensure their apps are only available to devices where they will run properly.

If a device includes a particular hardware component that has a corresponding API for third-party developers, the device implementation MUST implement that API as described in the Android SDK documentation. If an API in the SDK interacts with a hardware component that is stated to be optional and the device implementation does not possess that component:

  • complete class definitions (as documented by the SDK) for the component's APIs MUST still be present
  • the API's behaviors MUST be implemented as no-ops in some reasonable fashion
  • API methods MUST return null values where permitted by the SDK documentation
  • API methods MUST return no-op implementations of classes where null values are not permitted by the SDK documentation
  • API methods MUST NOT throw exceptions not documented by the SDK documentation

A typical example of a scenario where these requirements apply is the telephony API: even on non-phone devices, these APIs must be implemented as reasonable no-ops.

Device implementations MUST accurately report accurate hardware configuration information via the getSystemAvailableFeatures() and hasSystemFeature(String) methods on the android.content.pm.PackageManager class. [ Resources, 27 ]

7.1. Display and Graphics

Android 2.3 includes facilities that automatically adjust application assets and UI layouts appropriately for the device, to ensure that third-party applications run well on a variety of hardware configurations [ Resources, 28 ]. Devices MUST properly implement these APIs and behaviors, as detailed in this section.

7.1.1. Screen Configurations

Device implementations MAY use screens of any pixel dimensions, provided that they meet the following requirements:

  • screens MUST be at least 2.5 inches in physical diagonal size
  • density MUST be at least 100 dpi
  • the aspect ratio MUST be between 1.333 (4:3) and 1.779 (16:9)
  • the display technology used consists of square pixels

Device implementations with a screen meeting the requirements above are considered compatible, and no additional action is necessary. The Android framework implementation automatically computes display characteristics such as screen size bucket and density bucket. In the majority of cases, the framework decisions are the correct ones. If the default framework computations are used, no additional action is necessary. Device implementers wishing to change the defaults, or use a screen that does not meet the requirements above MUST contact the Android Compatibility Team for guidance, as provided for in Section 12.

The units used by the requirements above are defined as follows:

  • "Physical diagonal size" is the distance in inches between two opposing corners of the illuminated portion of the display.
  • "dpi" (meaning "dots per inch") is the number of pixels encompassed by a linear horizontal or vertical span of 1". Where dpi values are listed, both horizontal and vertical dpi must fall within the range.
  • "Aspect ratio" is the ratio of the longer dimension of the screen to the shorter dimension. For example, a display of 480x854 pixels would be 854 / 480 = 1.779, or roughly "16:9".

Device implementations MUST use only displays with a single static configuration. That is, device implementations MUST NOT enable multiple screen configurations. For instance, since a typical television supports multiple resolutions such as 1080p, 720p, and so on, this configuration is not compatible with Android 2.3. (However, support for such configurations is under investigation and planned for a future version of Android.)

7.1.2. Display Metrics

Device implementations MUST report correct values for all display metrics defined in android.util.DisplayMetrics [ Resources, 29 ].

7.1.3. Declared Screen Support

Applications optionally indicate which screen sizes they support via the <supports-screens> attribute in the AndroidManifest.xml file. Device implementations MUST correctly honor applications' stated support for small, medium, and large screens, as described in the Android SDK documentation.

7.1.4. Screen Orientation

Compatible devices MUST support dynamic orientation by applications to either portrait or landscape screen orientation. That is, the device must respect the application's request for a specific screen orientation. Device implementations MAY select either portrait or landscape orientation as the default. Devices that cannot be physically rotated MAY meet this requirement by "letterboxing" applications that request portrait mode, using only a portion of the available display.

Devices MUST report the correct value for the device's current orientation, whenever queried via the android.content.res.Configuration.orientation, android.view.Display.getOrientation(), or other APIs.

7.1.5. 3D Graphics Acceleration

Device implementations MUST support OpenGL ES 1.0, as required by the Android 2.3 APIs. For devices that lack 3D acceleration hardware, a software implementation of OpenGL ES 1.0 is provided by the upstream Android Open-Source Project. Device implementations SHOULD support OpenGL ES 2.0.

Implementations MAY omit Open GL ES 2.0 support; however if support is omitted, device implementations MUST NOT report as supporting OpenGL ES 2.0. Specifically, if a device implementations lacks OpenGL ES 2.0 support:

  • the managed APIs (such as via the GLES10.getString() method) MUST NOT report support for OpenGL ES 2.0
  • the native C/C++ OpenGL APIs (that is, those available to apps via libGLES_v1CM.so, libGLES_v2.so, or libEGL.so) MUST NOT report support for OpenGL ES 2.0.

Conversely, if a device implementation does support OpenGL ES 2.0, it MUST accurately report that support via the routes just listed.

Note that Android 2.3 includes support for applications to optionally specify that they require specific OpenGL texture compression formats. These formats are typically vendor-specific. Device implementations are not required by Android 2.3 to implement any specific texture compression format. However, they SHOULD accurately report any texture compression formats that they do support, via the getString() method in the OpenGL API.

7.2. Input Devices

Android 2.3 supports a number of modalities for user input. Device implementations MUST support user input devices as provided for in this section.

7.2.1. Keyboard

Device implementations:

  • MUST include support for the Input Management Framework (which allows third party developers to create Input Management Engines -- ie soft keyboard) as detailed at developer.android.com
  • MUST provide at least one soft keyboard implementation (regardless of whether a hard keyboard is present)
  • MAY include additional soft keyboard implementations
  • MAY include a hardware keyboard
  • MUST NOT include a hardware keyboard that does not match one of the formats specified in android.content.res.Configuration.keyboard [ Resources, 30 ] (that is, QWERTY, or 12-key)

7.2.2. Non-touch Navigation

Device implementations:

  • MAY omit a non-touch navigation option (that is, may omit a trackball, d-pad, or wheel)
  • MUST report the correct value for android.content.res.Configuration.navigation [ Resources, 30 ]
  • MUST provide a reasonable alternative user interface mechanism for the selection and editing of text, compatible with Input Management Engines. The upstream Android Open-Source code includes a selection mechanism suitable for use with devices that lack non-touch navigation inputs.

7.2.3. Tombol navigasi

The Home, Menu and Back functions are essential to the Android navigation paradigm. Device implementations MUST make these functions available to the user at all times, regardless of application state. These functions SHOULD be implemented via dedicated buttons. They MAY be implemented using software, gestures, touch panel, etc., but if so they MUST be always accessible and not obscure or interfere with the available application display area.

Device implementers SHOULD also provide a dedicated search key. Device implementers MAY also provide send and end keys for phone calls.

7.2.4. Masukan layar sentuh

Device implementations:

  • MUST have a touchscreen
  • MAY have either capacitive or resistive touchscreen
  • MUST report the value of android.content.res.Configuration [ Resources, 30 ] reflecting corresponding to the type of the specific touchscreen on the device
  • SHOULD support fully independently tracked pointers, if the touchscreen supports multiple pointers

7.3. Sensor

Android 2.3 includes APIs for accessing a variety of sensor types. Devices implementations generally MAY omit these sensors, as provided for in the following subsections. If a device includes a particular sensor type that has a corresponding API for third-party developers, the device implementation MUST implement that API as described in the Android SDK documentation. For example, device implementations:

  • MUST accurately report the presence or absence of sensors per the android.content.pm.PackageManager class. [ Resources, 27 ]
  • MUST return an accurate list of supported sensors via the SensorManager.getSensorList() and similar methods
  • MUST behave reasonably for all other sensor APIs (for example, by returning true or false as appropriate when applications attempt to register listeners, not calling sensor listeners when the corresponding sensors are not present; etc.)

The list above is not comprehensive; the documented behavior of the Android SDK is to be considered authoritative.

Some sensor types are synthetic, meaning they can be derived from data provided by one or more other sensors. (Examples include the orientation sensor, and the linear acceleration sensor.) Device implementations SHOULD implement these sensor types, when they include the prerequisite physical sensors.

The Android 2.3 APIs introduce a notion of a "streaming" sensor, which is one that returns data continuously, rather than only when the data changes. Device implementations MUST continuously provide periodic data samples for any API indicated by the Android 2.3 SDK documentation to be a streaming sensor.

7.3.1. Akselerometer

Device implementations SHOULD include a 3-axis accelerometer. If a device implementation does include a 3-axis accelerometer, it:

  • MUST be able to deliver events at 50 Hz or greater
  • MUST comply with the Android sensor coordinate system as detailed in the Android APIs (see [ Resources, 31 ])
  • MUST be capable of measuring from freefall up to twice gravity (2g) or more on any three-dimensional vector
  • MUST have 8-bits of accuracy or more
  • MUST have a standard deviation no greater than 0.05 m/s^2

7.3.2. Magnetometer

Device implementations SHOULD include a 3-axis magnetometer (ie compass.) If a device does include a 3-axis magnetometer, it:

  • MUST be able to deliver events at 10 Hz or greater
  • MUST comply with the Android sensor coordinate system as detailed in the Android APIs (see [ Resources, 31 ]).
  • MUST be capable of sampling a range of field strengths adequate to cover the geomagnetic field
  • MUST have 8-bits of accuracy or more
  • MUST have a standard deviation no greater than 0.5 µT

7.3.3. GPS

Device implementations SHOULD include a GPS receiver. If a device implementation does include a GPS receiver, it SHOULD include some form of "assisted GPS" technique to minimize GPS lock-on time.

7.3.4. Gyroscope

Device implementations SHOULD include a gyroscope (ie angular change sensor.) Devices SHOULD NOT include a gyroscope sensor unless a 3-axis accelerometer is also included. If a device implementation includes a gyroscope, it:

  • MUST be capable of measuring orientation changes up to 5.5*Pi radians/second (that is, approximately 1,000 degrees per second)
  • MUST be able to deliver events at 100 Hz or greater
  • MUST have 8-bits of accuracy or more

7.3.5. Barometer

Device implementations MAY include a barometer (ie ambient air pressure sensor.) If a device implementation includes a barometer, it:

  • MUST be able to deliver events at 5 Hz or greater
  • MUST have adequate precision to enable estimating altitude

7.3.7. Thermometer

Device implementations MAY but SHOULD NOT include a thermometer (ie temperature sensor.) If a device implementation does include a thermometer, it MUST measure the temperature of the device CPU. It MUST NOT measure any other temperature. (Note that this sensor type is deprecated in the Android 2.3 APIs.)

7.3.7. Photometer

Device implementations MAY include a photometer (ie ambient light sensor.)

7.3.8. Proximity Sensor

Device implementations MAY include a proximity sensor. If a device implementation does include a proximity sensor, it MUST measure the proximity of an object in the same direction as the screen. That is, the proximity sensor MUST be oriented to detect objects close to the screen, as the primary intent of this sensor type is to detect a phone in use by the user. If a device implementation includes a proximity sensor with any other orientation, it MUST NOT be accessible through this API. If a device implementation has a proximity sensor, it MUST be have 1-bit of accuracy or more.

7.4. Data Connectivity

Network connectivity and access to the Internet are vital features of Android. Meanwhile, device-to-device interaction adds significant value to Android devices and applications. Device implementations MUST meet the data connectivity requirements in this section.

7.4.1. Telepon

"Telephony" as used by the Android 2.3 APIs and this document refers specifically to hardware related to placing voice calls and sending SMS messages via a GSM or CDMA network. While these voice calls may or may not be packet-switched, they are for the purposes of Android 2.3 considered independent of any data connectivity that may be implemented using the same network. In other words, the Android "telephony" functionality and APIs refer specifically to voice calls and SMS; for instance, device implementations that cannot place calls or send/receive SMS messages MUST NOT report the "android.hardware.telephony" feature or any sub-features, regardless of whether they use a cellular network for data connectivity.

Android 2.3 MAY be used on devices that do not include telephony hardware. That is, Android 2.3 is compatible with devices that are not phones. However, if a device implementation does include GSM or CDMA telephony, it MUST implement full support for the API for that technology. Device implementations that do not include telephony hardware MUST implement the full APIs as no-ops.

7.4.2. IEEE 802.11 (WiFi)

Android 2.3 device implementations SHOULD include support for one or more forms of 802.11 (b/g/a/n, etc.) If a device implementation does include support for 802.11, it MUST implement the corresponding Android API.

7.4.3. Bluetooth

Device implementations SHOULD include a Bluetooth transceiver. Device implementations that do include a Bluetooth transceiver MUST enable the RFCOMM-based Bluetooth API as described in the SDK documentation [ Resources, 32 ]. Device implementations SHOULD implement relevant Bluetooth profiles, such as A2DP, AVRCP, OBEX, etc. as appropriate for the device.

The Compatibility Test Suite includes cases that cover basic operation of the Android RFCOMM Bluetooth API. However, since Bluetooth is a communications protocol between devices, it cannot be fully tested by unit tests running on a single device. Consequently, device implementations MUST also pass the human-driven Bluetooth test procedure described in Appendix A.

7.4.4. Komunikasi Jarak Dekat

Device implementations SHOULD include a transceiver and related hardware for Near-Field Communications (NFC). If a device implementation does include NFC hardware, then it:

  • MUST report the android.hardware.nfc feature from the android.content.pm.PackageManager.hasSystemFeature() method. [ Resources, 27 ]
  • MUST be capable of reading and writing NDEF messages via the following NFC standards:
    • MUST be capable of acting as an NFC Forum reader/writer (as defined by the NFC Forum technical specification NFCForum-TS-DigitalProtocol-1.0) via the following NFC standards:
      • NfcA (ISO14443-3A)
      • NfcB (ISO14443-3B)
      • NfcF (JIS 6319-4)
      • NfcV (ISO 15693)
      • IsoDep (ISO 14443-4)
      • NFC Forum Tag Types 1, 2, 3, 4 (defined by the NFC Forum)
    • MUST be capable of transmitting and receiving data via the following peer-to-peer standards and protocols:
      • ISO 18092
      • LLCP 1.0 (defined by the NFC Forum)
      • SDP 1.0 (defined by the NFC Forum)
      • NDEF Push Protocol [ Resources, 33 ]
    • MUST scan for all supported technologies while in NFC discovery mode.
    • SHOULD be in NFC discovery mode while the device is awake with the screen active.

    (Note that publicly available links are not available for the JIS, ISO, and NFC Forum specifications cited above.)

    Additionally, device implementations SHOULD support the following widely-deployed MIFARE technologies.

    Note that Android 2.3.3 includes APIs for these MIFARE types. If a device implementation supports MIFARE, it:

    • MUST implement the corresponding Android APIs as documented by the Android SDK
    • MUST report the feature com.nxp.mifare from the android.content.pm.PackageManager.hasSystemFeature() method. [ Resources, 27 ] Note that this is not a standard Android feature, and as such does not appear as a constant on the PackageManager class.
    • MUST NOT implement the corresponding Android APIs nor report the com.nxp.mifare feature unless it also implements general NFC support as described in this section

    If a device implementation does not include NFC hardware, it MUST NOT declare the android.hardware.nfc feature from the android.content.pm.PackageManager.hasSystemFeature() method [ Resources, 27 ], and MUST implement the Android 2.3 NFC API as a no-op.

    As the classes android.nfc.NdefMessage and android.nfc.NdefRecord represent a protocol-independent data representation format, device implementations MUST implement these APIs even if they do not include support for NFC or declare the android.hardware.nfc feature.

    7.4.5. Minimum Network Capability

    Device implementations MUST include support for one or more forms of data networking. Specifically, device implementations MUST include support for at least one data standard capable of 200Kbit/sec or greater. Examples of technologies that satisfy this requirement include EDGE, HSPA, EV-DO, 802.11g, Ethernet, etc.

    Device implementations where a physical networking standard (such as Ethernet) is the primary data connection SHOULD also include support for at least one common wireless data standard, such as 802.11 (WiFi).

    Devices MAY implement more than one form of data connectivity.

    7.5. Cameras

    Device implementations SHOULD include a rear-facing camera, and MAY include a front-facing camera. A rear-facing camera is a camera located on the side of the device opposite the display; that is, it images scenes on the far side of the device, like a traditional camera. A front-facing camera is a camera located on the same side of the device as the display; that is, a camera typically used to image the user, such as for video conferencing and similar applications.

    7.5.1. Rear-Facing Camera

    Device implementations SHOULD include a rear-facing camera. If a device implementation includes a rear-facing camera, it:

    • MUST have a resolution of at least 2 megapixels
    • SHOULD have either hardware auto-focus, or software auto-focus implemented in the camera driver (transparent to application software)
    • MAY have fixed-focus or EDOF (extended depth of field) hardware
    • MAY include a flash. If the Camera includes a flash, the flash lamp MUST NOT be lit while an android.hardware.Camera.PreviewCallback instance has been registered on a Camera preview surface, unless the application has explicitly enabled the flash by enabling the FLASH_MODE_AUTO or FLASH_MODE_ON attributes of a Camera.Parameters object. Note that this constraint does not apply to the device's built-in system camera application, but only to third-party applications using Camera.PreviewCallback .

    7.5.2. Front-Facing Camera

    Device implementations MAY include a front-facing camera. If a device implementation includes a front-facing camera, it:

    • MUST have a resolution of at least VGA (that is, 640x480 pixels)
    • MUST NOT use a front-facing camera as the default for the Camera API. That is, the camera API in Android 2.3 has specific support for front-facing cameras, and device implementations MUST NOT configure the API to to treat a front-facing camera as the default rear-facing camera, even if it is the only camera on the device.
    • MAY include features (such as auto-focus, flash, etc.) available to rear-facing cameras as described in Section 7.5.1.
    • MUST horizontally reflect (ie mirror) the stream displayed by an app in a CameraPreview, as follows:
      • If the device implementation is capable of being rotated by user (such as automatically via an accelerometer or manually via user input), the camera preview MUST be mirrored horizontally relative to the device's current orientation.
      • If the current application has explicitly requested that the Camera display be rotated via a call to the android.hardware.Camera.setDisplayOrientation() [ Resources, 40 ] method, the camera preview MUST be mirrored horizontally relative to the orientation specified by the application.
      • Otherwise, the preview MUST be mirrored along the device's default horizontal axis.
    • MUST mirror the image data returned to any "postview" camera callback handlers, in the same manner as the camera preview image stream. (If the device implementation does not support postview callbacks, this requirement obviously does not apply.)
    • MUST NOT mirror the final captured still image or video streams returned to application callbacks or committed to media storage

    7.5.3. Camera API Behavior

    Device implementations MUST implement the following behaviors for the camera-related APIs, for both front- and rear-facing cameras:

    1. If an application has never called android.hardware.Camera.Parameters.setPreviewFormat(int), then the device MUST use android.hardware.PixelFormat.YCbCr_420_SP for preview data provided to application callbacks.
    2. If an application registers an android.hardware.Camera.PreviewCallback instance and the system calls the onPreviewFrame() method when the preview format is YCbCr_420_SP, the data in the byte[] passed into onPreviewFrame() must further be in the NV21 encoding format. That is, NV21 MUST be the default.
    3. Device implementations SHOULD support the YV12 format (as denoted by the android.graphics.ImageFormat.YV12 constant) for camera previews for both front- and rear-facing cameras. Note that the Compatibility Definition for a future version is planned to change this requirement to "MUST". That is, YV12 support is optional in Android 2.3 but will be required by a future version. Existing and new devices that run Android 2.3 are very strongly encouraged to meet this requirement in Android 2.3 , or they will not be able to attain Android compatibility when upgraded to the future version.

    Device implementations MUST implement the full Camera API included in the Android 2.3 SDK documentation [ Resources, 41 ]), regardless of whether the device includes hardware autofocus or other capabilities. For instance, cameras that lack autofocus MUST still call any registered android.hardware.Camera.AutoFocusCallback instances (even though this has no relevance to a non-autofocus camera.) Note that this does apply to front-facing cameras; for instance, even though most front-facing cameras do not support autofocus, the API callbacks must still be "faked" as described.

    Device implementations MUST recognize and honor each parameter name defined as a constant on the android.hardware.Camera.Parameters class, if the underlying hardware supports the feature. If the device hardware does not support a feature, the API must behave as documented. Conversely, Device implementations MUST NOT honor or recognize string constants passed to the android.hardware.Camera.setParameters() method other than those documented as constants on the android.hardware.Camera.Parameters . That is, device implementations MUST support all standard Camera parameters if the hardware allows, and MUST NOT support custom Camera parameter types.

    7.5.4. Camera Orientation

    Both front- and rear-facing cameras, if present, MUST be oriented so that the long dimension of the camera aligns with the screen's long dimention. That is, when the device is held in the landscape orientation, a cameras MUST capture images in the landscape orientation. This applies regardless of the device's natural orientation; that is, it applies to landscape-primary devices as well as portrait-primary devices.

    7.6. Memory and Storage

    The fundamental function of Android 2.3 is to run applications. Device implementations MUST the requirements of this section, to ensure adequate storage and memory for applications to run properly.

    7.6.1. Minimum Memory and Storage

    Device implementations MUST have at least 128MB of memory available to the kernel and userspace. The 128MB MUST be in addition to any memory dedicated to hardware components such as radio, memory, and so on that is not under the kernel's control.

    Device implementations MUST have at least 150MB of non-volatile storage available for user data. That is, the /data partition MUST be at least 150MB.

    Beyond the requirements above, device implementations SHOULD have at least 1GB of non-volatile storage available for user data. Note that this higher requirement is planned to become a hard minimum in a future version of Android. Device implementations are strongly encouraged to meet these requirements now, or else they may not be eligible for compatibility for a future version of Android.

    The Android APIs include a Download Manager that applications may use to download data files. The Download Manager implementation MUST be capable of downloading individual files 55MB in size, or larger. The Download Manager implementation SHOULD be capable of downloading files 100MB in size, or larger.

    7.6.2. Application Shared Storage

    Device implementations MUST offer shared storage for applications. The shared storage provided MUST be at least 1GB in size.

    Device implementations MUST be configured with shared storage mounted by default, "out of the box". If the shared storage is not mounted on the Linux path /sdcard , then the device MUST include a Linux symbolic link from /sdcard to the actual mount point.

    Device implementations MUST enforce as documented the android.permission.WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE permission on this shared storage. Shared storage MUST otherwise be writable by any application that obtains that permission.

    Device implementations MAY have hardware for user-accessible removable storage, such as a Secure Digital card. Alternatively, device implementations MAY allocate internal (non-removable) storage as shared storage for apps.

    Regardless of the form of shared storage used, device implementations MUST provide some mechanism to access the contents of shared storage from a host computer, such as USB mass storage or Media Transfer Protocol.

    It is illustrative to consider two common examples. If a device implementation includes an SD card slot to satisfy the shared storage requirement, a FAT-formatted SD card 1GB in size or larger MUST be included with the device as sold to users, and MUST be mounted by default. Alternatively, if a device implementation uses internal fixed storage to satisfy this requirement, that storage MUST be 1GB in size or larger and mounted on /sdcard (or /sdcard MUST be a symbolic link to the physical location if it is mounted elsewhere.)

    Device implementations that include multiple shared storage paths (such as both an SD card slot and shared internal storage) SHOULD modify the core applications such as the media scanner and ContentProvider to transparently support files placed in both locations.

    7.7. USB

    Device implementations:

    • MUST implement a USB client, connectable to a USB host with a standard USB-A port
    • MUST implement the Android Debug Bridge over USB (as described in Section 7)
    • MUST implement the USB mass storage specification, to allow a host connected to the device to access the contents of the /sdcard volume
    • SHOULD use the micro USB form factor on the device side
    • MAY include a non-standard port on the device side, but if so MUST ship with a cable capable of connecting the custom pinout to standard USB-A port

    8. Performance Compatibility

    Compatible implementations must ensure not only that applications simply run correctly on the device, but that they do so with reasonable performance and overall good user experience. Device implementations MUST meet the key performance metrics of an Android 2.3 compatible device defined in the table below:

    Metric Performance Threshold Komentar
    Application Launch Time The following applications should launch within the specified time.
    • Browser: less than 1300ms
    • MMS/SMS: less than 700ms
    • AlarmClock: less than 650ms
    The launch time is measured as the total time to complete loading the default activity for the application, including the time it takes to start the Linux process, load the Android package into the Dalvik VM, and call onCreate.
    Simultaneous Applications When multiple applications have been launched, re-launching an already-running application after it has been launched must take less than the original launch time.

    9. Security Model Compatibility

    Device implementations MUST implement a security model consistent with the Android platform security model as defined in Security and Permissions reference document in the APIs [ Resources, 42 ] in the Android developer documentation. Device implementations MUST support installation of self-signed applications without requiring any additional permissions/certificates from any third parties/authorities. Specifically, compatible devices MUST support the security mechanisms described in the follow sub-sections.

    9.1. Permissions

    Device implementations MUST support the Android permissions model as defined in the Android developer documentation [ Resources, 42 ]. Specifically, implementations MUST enforce each permission defined as described in the SDK documentation; no permissions may be omitted, altered, or ignored. Implementations MAY add additional permissions, provided the new permission ID strings are not in the android.* namespace.

    9.2. UID and Process Isolation

    Device implementations MUST support the Android application sandbox model, in which each application runs as a unique Unix-style UID and in a separate process. Device implementations MUST support running multiple applications as the same Linux user ID, provided that the applications are properly signed and constructed, as defined in the Security and Permissions reference [ Resources, 42 ].

    9.3. Filesystem Permissions

    Device implementations MUST support the Android file access permissions model as defined in as defined in the Security and Permissions reference [ Resources, 42 ].

    9.4. Lingkungan Eksekusi Alternatif

    Device implementations MAY include runtime environments that execute applications using some other software or technology than the Dalvik virtual machine or native code. However, such alternate execution environments MUST NOT compromise the Android security model or the security of installed Android applications, as described in this section.

    Alternate runtimes MUST themselves be Android applications, and abide by the standard Android security model, as described elsewhere in Section 9.

    Alternate runtimes MUST NOT be granted access to resources protected by permissions not requested in the runtime's AndroidManifest.xml file via the <uses-permission> mechanism.

    Alternate runtimes MUST NOT permit applications to make use of features protected by Android permissions restricted to system applications.

    Alternate runtimes MUST abide by the Android sandbox model. Specifically:

    • Alternate runtimes SHOULD install apps via the PackageManager into separate Android sandboxes (that is, Linux user IDs, etc.)
    • Alternate runtimes MAY provide a single Android sandbox shared by all applications using the alternate runtime.
    • Alternate runtimes and installed applications using an alternate runtime MUST NOT reuse the sandbox of any other app installed on the device, except through the standard Android mechanisms of shared user ID and signing certificate
    • Alternate runtimes MUST NOT launch with, grant, or be granted access to the sandboxes corresponding to other Android applications.

    Alternate runtimes MUST NOT be launched with, be granted, or grant to other applications any privileges of the superuser (root), or of any other user ID.

    The .apk files of alternate runtimes MAY be included in the system image of a device implementation, but MUST be signed with a key distinct from the key used to sign other applications included with the device implementation.

    When installing applications, alternate runtimes MUST obtain user consent for the Android permissions used by the application. That is, if an application needs to make use of a device resource for which there is a corresponding Android permission (such as Camera, GPS, etc.), the alternate runtime MUST inform the user that the application will be able to access that resource. If the runtime environment does not record application capabilities in this manner, the runtime environment MUST list all permissions held by the runtime itself when installing any application using that runtime.

    10. Pengujian Kompatibilitas Perangkat Lunak

    The Android Open-Source Project includes various testing tools to verify that device implementations are compatible. Device implementations MUST pass all tests described in this section.

    However, note that no software test package is fully comprehensive. For this reason, device implementers are very strongly encouraged to make the minimum number of changes as possible to the reference and preferred implementation of Android 2.3 available from the Android Open-Source Project. This will minimize the risk of introducing bugs that create incompatibilities requiring rework and potential device updates.

    10.1. Suite Uji Kompatibilitas

    Device implementations MUST pass the Android Compatibility Test Suite (CTS) [ Resources, 2 ] available from the Android Open Source Project, using the final shipping software on the device. Additionally, device implementers SHOULD use the reference implementation in the Android Open Source tree as much as possible, and MUST ensure compatibility in cases of ambiguity in CTS and for any reimplementations of parts of the reference source code.

    The CTS is designed to be run on an actual device. Like any software, the CTS may itself contain bugs. The CTS will be versioned independently of this Compatibility Definition, and multiple revisions of the CTS may be released for Android 2.3. Device implementations MUST pass the latest CTS version available at the time the device software is completed.

    MUST pass the most recent version of the Android Compatibility Test Suite (CTS) available at the time of the device implementation's software is completed. (The CTS is available as part of the Android Open Source Project [ Resources, 2 ].) The CTS tests many, but not all, of the components outlined in this document.

    10.2. Pemverifikasi CTS

    Device implementations MUST correctly execute all applicable cases in the CTS Verifier. The CTS Verifier is included with the Compatibility Test Suite, and is intended to be run by a human operator to test functionality that cannot be tested by an automated system, such as correct functioning of a camera and sensors.

    The CTS Verifier has tests for many kinds of hardware, including some hardware that is optional. Device implementations MUST pass all tests for hardware which they possess; for instance, if a device possesses an accelerometer, it MUST correctly execute the Accelerometer test case in the CTS Verifier. Test cases for features noted as optional by this Compatibility Definition Document MAY be skipped or omitted.

    Every device and every build MUST correctly run the CTS Verifier, as noted above. However, since many builds are very similar, device implementers are not expected to explicitly run the CTS Verifier on builds that differ only in trivial ways. Specifically, device implementations that differ from an implementation that has passed the CTS Verfier only by the set of included locales, branding, etc. MAY omit the CTS Verifier test.

    10.3. Aplikasi Referensi

    Device implementers MUST test implementation compatibility using the following open-source applications:

    • The "Apps for Android" applications [ Resources, 43 ].
    • Replica Island (available in Android Market; only required for device implementations that support with OpenGL ES 2.0)

    Each app above MUST launch and behave correctly on the implementation, for the implementation to be considered compatible.

    11. Updatable Software

    Device implementations MUST include a mechanism to replace the entirety of the system software. The mechanism need not perform "live" upgrades -- that is, a device restart MAY be required.

    Any method can be used, provided that it can replace the entirety of the software preinstalled on the device. For instance, any of the following approaches will satisfy this requirement:

    • Over-the-air (OTA) downloads with offline update via reboot
    • "Tethered" updates over USB from a host PC
    • "Offline" updates via a reboot and update from a file on removable storage

    The update mechanism used MUST support updates without wiping user data. Note that the upstream Android software includes an update mechanism that satisfies this requirement.

    If an error is found in a device implementation after it has been released but within its reasonable product lifetime that is determined in consultation with the Android Compatibility Team to affect the compatibility of third-party applications, the device implementer MUST correct the error via a software update available that can be applied per the mechanism just described.

    12. Contact Us

    You can contact the document authors at compatibility@android.com for clarifications and to bring up any issues that you think the document does not cover.

    Appendix A - Bluetooth Test Procedure

    The Compatibility Test Suite includes cases that cover basic operation of the Android RFCOMM Bluetooth API. However, since Bluetooth is a communications protocol between devices, it cannot be fully tested by unit tests running on a single device. Consequently, device implementations MUST also pass the human-operated Bluetooth test procedure described below.

    The test procedure is based on the BluetoothChat sample app included in the Android open-source project tree. The procedure requires two devices:

    • a candidate device implementation running the software build to be tested
    • a separate device implementation already known to be compatible, and of a model from the device implementation being tested -- that is, a "known good" device implementation

    The test procedure below refers to these devices as the "candidate" and "known good" devices, respectively.

    Setup and Installation

    1. Build BluetoothChat.apk via 'make samples' from an Android source code tree.
    2. Install BluetoothChat.apk on the known-good device.
    3. Install BluetoothChat.apk on the candidate device.

    Test Bluetooth Control by Apps

    1. Launch BluetoothChat on the candidate device, while Bluetooth is disabled.
    2. Verify that the candidate device either turns on Bluetooth, or prompts the user with a dialog to turn on Bluetooth.

    Test Pairing and Communication

    1. Launch the Bluetooth Chat app on both devices.
    2. Make the known-good device discoverable from within BluetoothChat (using the Menu).
    3. On the candidate device, scan for Bluetooth devices from within BluetoothChat (using the Menu) and pair with the known-good device.
    4. Send 10 or more messages from each device, and verify that the other device receives them correctly.
    5. Close the BluetoothChat app on both devices by pressing Home .
    6. Unpair each device from the other, using the device Settings app.

    Test Pairing and Communication in the Reverse Direction

    1. Launch the Bluetooth Chat app on both devices.
    2. Make the candidate device discoverable from within BluetoothChat (using the Menu).
    3. On the known-good device, scan for Bluetooth devices from within BluetoothChat (using the Menu) and pair with the candidate device.
    4. Send 10 or messages from each device, and verify that the other device receives them correctly.
    5. Close the Bluetooth Chat app on both devices by pressing Back repeatedly to get to the Launcher.

    Test Re-Launches

    1. Re-launch the Bluetooth Chat app on both devices.
    2. Send 10 or messages from each device, and verify that the other device receives them correctly.

    Note: the above tests have some cases which end a test section by using Home, and some using Back. These tests are not redundant and are not optional: the objective is to verify that the Bluetooth API and stack works correctly both when Activities are explicitly terminated (via the user pressing Back, which calls finish()), and implicitly sent to background (via the user pressing Home.) Each test sequence MUST be performed as described.