Android Compatibility Definition Document Changelog

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Android 13

2. Device Types

  • 2.2.1 Hardware: Changes to hardware requirements as follows.

    • Input devices:

      See revision

      Handheld device implementations:

      • [7.2.3/H-0-5] MUST call OnBackInvokedCallback.onBackStarted() on the current focused window when the back gesture starts or the back button (KEYCODE_BACK) is pressed DOWN.
      • [7.2.3/H-0-6] MUST call OnBackInvokedCallback.onBackInvoked() when the back gesture is committed or the Back button is released (UP).
      • [7.2.3/H-0-7] MUST call OnBackInvokedCallback.onBackCancelled() when the back gesture is not committed or the KEYCODE_BACK event is canceled.

      If devices support WiFi Neighbor Awareness Networking (NAN) protocol by declaring PackageManager.FEATURE_WIFI_AWARE and Wi-Fi Location (Wi-Fi Round Trip Time — RTT) by declaring PackageManager.FEATURE_WIFI_RTT, then they:

      • [7.4.2.5/H-1-1] MUST report the range accurately to within +/-1 meter at 160 MHz bandwidth at the 68th percentile (as calculated with the Cumulative Distribution Function), +/-2 meters at 80 MHz bandwidth at the 68th percentile, +/-4 meters at 40 MHz bandwidth at the 68th percentile, and +/-8 meters at 20 MHz bandwidth at the 68th percentile at distances of 10 cm, 1 m, 3 m, and 5 m, as observed via the WifiRttManager#startRanging Android API.

      • [7.4.2.5/H-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to report the range accurately to within +/-1 meter at 160 MHz bandwidth at the 90th percentile (as calculated with the Cumulative Distribution Function), +/-2 meters at 80 MHz bandwidth at the 90th percentile, +/-4 meters at 40 MHz bandwidth at the 90th percentile, and +/-8 meters at 20 MHz bandwidth at the 90th percentile at distances of 10 cm, as observed via the WifiRttManager#startRanging Android API.

      It is STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to follow the measurement setup steps specified in Presence Calibration Requirements.

    • Audio latency:

      See revision

      If Handheld device implementations declare android.hardware.audio.output and android.hardware.microphone, they:

      • [5.6/H-1-1] MUST have a Mean Continuous Round-Trip latency of 500 800 milliseconds or less over 5 measurements, with a Mean Absolute Deviation less than 50 100 ms, over the following data paths: "speaker to microphone", 3.5 mm loopback adapter (if supported), USB loopback (if supported). at least one supported path.

      • [5.6/H-1-1] MUST have an average Tap-to-tone latency of 500 milliseconds or less over at least 5 measurements over the speaker to microphone data path.

    • Haptic inputs:

      See revision

      If Handheld device implementations include at least one haptic actuator, they:

      • [7.10/H]* SHOULD NOT use an eccentric rotating mass (ERM) haptic actuator (vibrator).
      • [7.10/H]* SHOULD position the placement of the actuator near the location where the device is typically held or touched by hands.
      • [7.10/H]* SHOULD implement all public constants for clear haptics in android.view.HapticFeedbackConstants namely (CLOCK_TICK, CONTEXT_CLICK, KEYBOARD_PRESS, KEYBOARD_RELEASE, KEYBOARD_TAP, LONG_PRESS, TEXT_HANDLE_MOVE, VIRTUAL_KEY, VIRTUAL_KEY_RELEASE, CONFIRM, REJECT, GESTURE_START and GESTURE_END).
      • [7.10/H]* SHOULD implement all public constants for clear haptics in android.os.VibrationEffect namely (EFFECT_TICK, EFFECT_CLICK, EFFECT_HEAVY_CLICK and EFFECT_DOUBLE_CLICK) and all feasible public PRIMITIVE_* constants for rich haptics in android.os.VibrationEffect.Composition namely (PRIMITIVE_CLICK and PRIMITIVE_TICK) (CLICK, TICK, LOW_TICK, QUICK_FALL, QUICK_RISE, SLOW_RISE, SPIN, THUD). Some of these primitives, such as LOW_TICK and SPIN may only be feasible if the vibrator can support relatively low frequencies.

      • [7.10/H]* SHOULD use these linked haptic constants mappings.

      If Handheld device implementations include at least one linear resonant actuator, they:

      • [7.10/H]* SHOULD move the haptic actuator in the X-axis (left-right) of portrait orientation.

      • [7.10/H]* SHOULD verify and update if needed the fallback configuration for unsupported primitives as described in the implementation guidance for constants.

      • [7.10/H]* SHOULD provide fallback support to mitigate the risk of failure as described here.

  • 2.2.3 Software:

    • Auth Trivial Device Cotntrols:

      See revision

      • [3.8.16/H-1-5] MUST provide a user affordance to opt out of app designated auth-trivial device controls from the controls registered by the third-party applications through the ControlsProviderService and the Control Control.isAuthRequired API.

    • MediaStyle Notifications:

      See revision

      If Handheld device implementations support MediaStyle notifications they:

      • [3.8.3.1/H-1-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to provide a user affordance(e.g. “output switcher”) accessed from system UI that allows users to switch among appropriate available media routes(e.g. bluetooth devices and routes provided to MediaRouter2Manager) when an app posts a MediaStyle notification with a MediaSession token.

  • 2.2.4 Performance and Power: New requirement for apps that run foreground services.

    See revision

    Handheld device implementations:

    • [8.5/H-0-1] MUST provide a user affordance in the Settings menu with the ability to stop an app that is running a foreground service and display all apps that have active foreground services and the duration of each of these services since it started as described in the SDK document.
      • Some apps MAY be exempted from being stopped or being listed in such a user affordance as described in the SDK document.

  • 2.2.7.1 Media: Updates to the Handheld Requirements Media section as follows:

    See revision

    If Handheld device implementations return android.os.Build.VERSION_CODES.T for android.os.Build.VERSION_CODES.MEDIA_PERFORMANCE_CLASS, then they:

    • [5.1/H-1-1] MUST advertise the maximum number of hardware video decoder sessions that can be run concurrently in any codec combination via the CodecCapabilities.getMaxSupportedInstances() and VideoCapabilities.getSupportedPerformancePoints() methods.
    • [5.1/H-1-2] MUST support 6 instances of hardware video decoder sessions (AVC, HEVC, VP9, AV1 or later) in any codec combination running concurrently at 1080p resolution@30 fps.
    • [5.1/H-1-3] MUST advertise the maximum number of hardware video encoder sessions that can be run concurrently in any codec combination via the CodecCapabilities.getMaxSupportedInstances() and VideoCapabilities.getSupportedPerformancePoints() methods.
    • [5.1/H-1-4] MUST support 6 instances of hardware video encoder sessions (AVC, HEVC, VP9, AV1 or later) in any codec combination running concurrently at 1080p resolution@30fps.
    • [5.1/H-1-5] MUST advertise the maximum number of hardware video encoder and decoder sessions that can be run concurrently in any codec combination via the CodecCapabilities.getMaxSupportedInstances() and VideoCapabilities.getSupportedPerformancePoints() methods.
    • [5.1/H-1-6] MUST support 6 instances of hardware video decoder and hardware video encoder sessions (AVC, HEVC, VP9, AV1 or later) in any codec combination running concurrently at 1080p@30fps resolution.
    • [5.1/H-1-7] MUST have a codec initialization latency of 40 ms or less for a 1080p or smaller video encoding session for all hardware video encoders when under load. Load here is defined as a concurrent 1080p to 720p video-only transcoding session using hardware video codecs together with the 1080p audio-video recording initialization.
    • [5.1/H-1-8] MUST have a codec initialization latency of 30 ms or less for a 128 kbps or lower bitrate audio encoding session for all audio encoders when under load. Load here is defined as a concurrent 1080p to 720p video-only transcoding session using hardware video codecs together with the 1080p audio-video recording initialization.
    • [5.1/H-1-9] MUST support 2 instances of secure hardware video decoder sessions (AVC, HEVC, VP9, AV1 or later) in any codec combination running concurrently at 1080p resolution@30 fps.
    • [5.1/H-1-10] MUST support 3 instances of non-secure hardware video decoder sessions together with 1 instance of secure hardware video decoder session (4 instances total) (AVC, HEVC, VP9, AV1 or later) in any codec combination running concurrently at 1080p resolution@30fps.
    • [5.1/ H-1-11] MUST support a secure decoder for every hardware AVC, HEVC, VP9 or AV1 decoder on the device.
    • [5.1/H-1-12] MUST have a video decoder initialization latency of 40 ms or less.
    • [5.1/H-1-13] MUST have an audio decoder initialization latency of 30 ms or less.
    • [5.1/H-1-14] MUST support AV1 hardware decoder Main 10, Level 4.1.
    • [5.1/H-SR] Are Strongly Recommended to support Film Grain for AV1 hardware decoder.
    • [5.1/H-1-15] MUST have at least 1 hardware video decoder supporting 4K60.
    • [5.1/H-1-16] MUST have at least 1 hardware video encoder supporting 4K60.
    • [5.3/H-1-1] MUST NOT drop more than 1 frame in 10 seconds (i.e less than 0.167 percent frame drop) for a 1080p 60 fps video session under load. Load is defined as a concurrent 1080p to 720p video-only transcoding session using hardware video codecs, as well as a 128 kbps AAC audio playback.
    • [5.3/H-1-2] MUST NOT drop more than 1 frame in 10 seconds during a video resolution change in a 60 fps video session under load. Load is defined as a concurrent 1080p to 720p video-only transcoding session using hardware video codecs, as well as a 128 kbps AAC audio playback.
    • [5.6/H-1-1] MUST have a tap-to-tone latency of 80 milliseconds or less using the OboeTester tap-to-tone test or CTS Verifier tap-to-tone test.
    • [5.6/H-1-2] MUST have a round-trip audio latency of 80 milliseconds or less over at least one supported data path.
    • [5.6/H-1-3] MUST support >=24-bit audio for stereo output over 3.5 mm audio jacks if present and over USB audio if supported through the entire data path for low latency and streaming configurations. For the low latency configuration, AAudio should be used by the app in low-latency callback mode. For the streaming configuration, a Java AudioTrack should be used by the app. In both the low latency and streaming configurations, the HAL output sink should accept either AUDIO_FORMAT_PCM_24_BIT, AUDIO_FORMAT_PCM_24_BIT_PACKED, AUDIO_FORMAT_PCM_32_BIT or AUDIO_FORMAT_PCM_FLOAT for its target output format.
    • [5.6/H-1-4] MUST support >=4 channel USB audio devices (This is used by DJ controllers for previewing songs.)
    • [5.6/H-1-5] MUST support class compliant MIDI devices and declare the MIDI feature flag.
    • [5.7/H-1-2] MUST support MediaDrm.SECURITY_LEVEL_HW_SECURE_ALL with the below content decryption capabilities.
    Minimum Sample size 4 MiB
    Minimum Number of Subsamples - H264 or HEVC 32
    Minimum Number of Subsamples - VP9 9
    Minimum Number of Subsamples - AV1 288
    Minimum subsample buffer size 1 MiB
    Minimum Generic crypto buffer size 500 KiB
    Minimum Number of concurrent sessions 30
    Minimum Number of keys per session 20
    Minimum Total Number of Keys (all sessions) 80
    Minimum Total Number of DRM Keys (all sessions) 6
    Message Size 16 KiB
    Decrypted Frames per Second 60 fps

  • 2.2.7.2 Camera: Updates to the Media Performance Class Camera requirements.

    See revision

    If Handheld device implementations return android.os.Build.VERSION_CODES.T for android.os.Build.VERSION_CODES.MEDIA_PERFORMANCE_CLASS, then they:

    • [7.5/H-1-1] MUST have a primary rear facing camera with a resolution of at least 12 megapixels supporting video capture at 4k@30fps. The primary rear-facing camera is the rear-facing camera with the lowest camera ID.
    • [7.5/H-1-2] MUST have a primary front facing camera with a resolution of at least 5 megapixels and support video capture at 1080p@30fps. The primary front-facing camera is the front-facing camera with the lowest camera ID.
    • [7.5/H-1-3] MUST support android.info.supportedHardwareLevel property as FULL or better for both primary cameras.
    • [7.5/H-1-4] MUST support CameraMetadata.SENSOR_INFO_TIMESTAMP_SOURCE_REALTIME for both primary cameras.
    • [7.5/H-1-5] MUST have camera2 JPEG capture latency < 1000 ms for 1080p resolution as measured by the CTS camera PerformanceTest under ITS lighting conditions (3000K) for both primary cameras.
    • [7.5/H-1-6] MUST have camera2 startup latency (open camera to first preview frame) < 500 ms as measured by the CTS camera PerformanceTest under ITS lighting conditions (3000K) for both primary cameras.
    • [7.5/H-1-8] MUST support CameraMetadata.REQUEST_AVAILABLE_CAPABILITIES_RAW and android.graphics.ImageFormat.RAW_SENSOR for the primary back camera.
    • [7.5/H-1-9] MUST have a rear-facing primary camera supporting 720p or 1080p @ 240fps.
    • [7.5/H-1-10] MUST have min ZOOM_RATIO < 1.0 for the primary cameras if there is an ultrawide RGB camera facing the same direction.
    • [7.5/H-1-11] MUST implement concurrent front-back streaming on primary cameras.
    • [7.5/H-1-12] MUST support CONTROL_VIDEO_STABILIZATION_MODE_PREVIEW_STABILIZATION for both primary front and primary back camera.
    • [7.5/H-1-13] MUST support LOGICAL_MULTI_CAMERA capability for the primary cameras if there are greater than 1 RGB cameras facing the same direction.
    • [7.5/H-1-14] MUST support STREAM_USE_CASE capability for both primary front and primary back camera.

  • 2.2.7.3 Hardware: Updates to the Media Performance Class requirements for Hardware.

    See revision

    If Handheld device implementations return android.os.Build.VERSION_CODES.T for android.os.Build.VERSION_CODES.MEDIA_PERFORMANCE_CLASS, then they:

    • [7.1.1.1/H-2-1] MUST have screen resolution of at least 1080p.
    • [7.1.1.3/H-2-1] MUST have screen density of at least 400 dpi.
    • [7.6.1/H-2-1] MUST have at least 8 GB of physical memory.

  • 2.2.7.4 Performance: Updates to the Media Performance Class for Performance.

    See revision

    If Handheld device implementations return android.os.Build.VERSION_CODES.T for android.os.Build.VERSION_CODES.MEDIA_PERFORMANCE_CLASS, then they:

    • [8.2/H-1-1] MUST ensure a sequential write performance of at least 125 MB/s.
    • [8.2/H-1-2] MUST ensure a random write performance of at least 10 MB/s.
    • [8.2/H-1-3] MUST ensure a sequential read performance of at least 250 MB/s.
    • [8.2/H-1-4] MUST ensure a random read performance of at least 40 MB/s.

  • 2.5.1 Hardware: Updates to the 3-axis accelerometer and 3-axis gyroscope requirements, as well as the exterior-view camera requirements.

    See revision

    Automotive device implementations:

    • [7.3.1/A-0-4] MUST comply with the Android car sensor coordinate system.
    • [7.3/A-SR] Are STRONGLY_RECOMMENDED to include a 3-axis accelerometer and 3-axis gyroscope.
    • [7.3/A-SR] Are STRONGLY_RECOMMENDED to implement and report TYPE_HEADING sensor.

    If Automotive device implementations include an accelerometer, they:

    • [7.3.1/A-1-1] MUST be able to report events up to a frequency of at least 100 Hz.

    If device implementations include a 3-axis accelerometer, they:

    • [7.3.1/A-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to implement the composite sensor for limited axes accelerometer.

    If Automotive device implementations include an accelerometer with less than 3 axes, they:

    • [7.3.1/A-1-3] MUST implement and report TYPE_ACCELEROMETER_LIMITED_AXES sensor.
    • [7.3.1/A-1-4] MUST implement and report TYPE_ACCELEROMETER_LIMITED_AXES_UNCALIBRATED sensor.

    If Automotive device implementations include a gyroscope, they:

    • [7.3.4/A-2-1] MUST be able to report events up to a frequency of at least 100 Hz.
    • [7.3.4/A-2-3] MUST be capable of measuring orientation changes up to 250 degrees per second.
    • [7.3.4/A-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to configure the gyroscope’s measurement range to +/-250dps in order to maximize the resolution possible.

    If Automotive device implementations include a 3-axis gyroscope, they:

    • [7.3.4/A-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to implement the composite sensor for limited axes gyroscope.

    If Automotive device implementations include a gyroscope with less than 3-axes, they:

    • [7.3.4/A-4-1] MUST implement and report TYPE_GYROSCOPE_LIMITED_AXES sensor.
    • [7.3.4/A-4-2] MUST implement and report TYPE_GYROSCOPE_LIMITED_AXES_UNCALIBRATED sensor.

    If automotive device implementations include a TYPE_HEADING sensor, they:

    • [7.3.4/A-4-3] MUST be able to report events up to a frequency of at least 1 Hz.
    • [7.3.4/A-SR] STRONGLY_RECOMMENDED to report events up to a frequency of at least 10 Hz.
    • SHOULD be in reference to true north.
    • SHOULD be available even when the vehicle is still.
    • SHOULD have a resolution of at least 1 degree.

    An exterior view camera is a camera that images scenes outside of the device implementation, like the rearview camera a dashcam .

    If Automotive device implementations include an exterior view camera, for such a camera, they:

    • [7.5.5/A-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to be oriented so that the long dimension of the camera aligns with the horizon.

    • MAY have either hardware auto-focus or software auto-focus implemented in the camera driver.

    If automotive device implementations include one or more exterior view cameras, and load Exterior View System (EVS) service, then for such a camera, they:

    • [7.5/A-2-1] MUST NOT rotate or horizontally mirror the camera preview.

    Automotive device implementations:

    • MAY include one or more cameras that are available to third party applications.

    If automotive device implementations include at least one camera and make it available to third party applications then, they:

    • [7.5/A-3-1] MUST report the feature flag android.hardware.camera.any.
    • [7.5/A-3-2] MUST not declare the camera as a system camera.
    • MAY support external cameras described in section 7.5.3.
    • MAY include features (such as auto-focus, etc.) available to rear-facing cameras as described in section 7.5.1.

  • 2.5.5 Security Model: New requirements for camera permissions for automotive devices.

    See revision

    If Automotive device implementations declare android.hardware.camera.any, then they:

    • [9.8.2/A-2-1] MUST display the camera indicator when an app is accessing live camera data, but not when the camera is only being accessed by app(s) holding the roles called out in Section 9.1 Permissions with CDD identifier [C-3-X].

    • [9.8.2/A-2-2] MUST not hide the camera indicator for system apps that have visible user interfaces or direct user interaction.

  • 2.6.1 Tablet Requirements — Hardware: Update to tablet screen size requirements.

    See revision

    An Android Tablet device refers to an Android device implementation that typically meets all the following criteria:

    • Has a screen display size greater than 7” and less than 18", measured diagonally.

    Screen Size

    • [7.1.1.1/Tab-0-1] MUST have a screen in the range of 7 to 18 inches.

3. Software

  • 3.2.2 Build Parameters: Updated ASCII characters in getSerial().

    See revision

    • [C-0-1] To provide consistent, meaningful values across device implementations, the table below includes additional restrictions on the formats of these values to which device implementations MUST conform.
    Parameter Details
    getSerial() MUST (be or return) a hardware serial number, which MUST be available and unique across devices with the same MODEL and MANUFACTURER. The value of this field MUST be encodable as 7-bit ASCII and match the regular expression “^[a-zA-Z0-9]+$”.

  • 3.2.3.5 Conditional Application Intents: Update to requirements for conditional application intents.

    See revision

    If device implementations include a large display (generally having display width and height of 600dp+) and supports split functionality, then they:

  • 3.5.1 Application Restriction: Updates to application restrictions.

    See revision

    If device implementations implement a proprietary mechanism to restrict apps (e.g. changing or restricting API behaviors that are described in the SDK) and that mechanism is more restrictive than the Restricted App Standby Bucket, they:

    • [C-1-1] MUST allow the user to see the list of restricted apps.
    • [C-1-2] MUST provide user affordance to turn on / off all of these proprietary restrictions on each app.
    • [C-1-3] MUST not automatically apply these proprietary restrictions without evidence of poor system health behavior, but MAY apply the restrictions on apps upon detection of poor system health behavior like stuck wakelocks, long running services, and other criteria. The criteria MAY be determined by device implementers but MUST be related to the app’s impact on the system health. Other criteria that are not purely related to the system health, such as the app’s lack of popularity in the market, MUST NOT be used as criteria.
    • [C-1-4] MUST not automatically apply these proprietary restrictions for apps when a user has turned off app restrictions manually, and MAY suggest the user to apply these proprietary restrictions.
    • [C-1-5] MUST inform users if these proprietary restrictions are applied to an app automatically. Such information MUST be provided in the 24-hour period preceding the application of these proprietary restrictions.

    • [C-1-6] MUST return true for the ActivityManager.isBackgroundRestricted() method for any API calls from an app.

    • [C-1-7] MUST NOT restrict the top foreground app that is explicitly used by the user.

    • [C-1-8] MUST suspend these proprietary restrictions on an app whenever a user starts to explicitly use the app, making it the top foreground application.

    • [C-1-9] MUST report all these proprietary restrictions events via UsageStats.

    • [C-1-10] MUST provide a public and clear document or website that describes how proprietary restrictions are applied. This document or website MUST be linkable from the Android SDK documents and MUST include:

      • Triggering conditions for proprietary restrictions.
      • What and how an app can be restricted.
      • How an app can be exempted from such restrictions.
      • How an app can request an exemption from proprietary restrictions, if they support such an exemption for apps the user can install.

    If an app is pre-installed on the device and has never been explicitly used by a user for more than 30 days, [C-1-3] [C-1-5] are exempted.

  • 3.8.1 Launcher (Home Screen): Updates to support for monochrome/adaptive-icon.

    See revision

    If device implementations support monochrome icons, these icons:

    • [C-6-1] MUST be used only when a user explicitly enables them (e.g. via Settings or wallpaper picker menu).

  • 3.8.2 Widgets: Update to third-party app widget presence in the Launcher.

    See revision

    If device implementations support third-party app widgets, they:

    • [C-1-2] MUST include built-in support for AppWidgets and expose user interface affordances to add, configure, view, and remove AppWidgets directly within the Launcher.

  • 3.8.3.1 Presentation of Notifications: Clarifying the definition of heads-up notifications.

    See revision

    Heads up notifications are notifications that are presented to the user as they come in independently of the surface the user is on.

  • 3.8.3.3 DND (Do not Disturb) / Priority Mode: Update to include Priority Mode in DND (Do Not Disturb) requirements.

    See revision

    3.8.3.3. DND (Do not Disturb) / Priority Mode

    If device implementations support the DND feature (also called Priority Mode), they:

  • 3.8.6 Themes: New requirements for dynamic color tonal palettes.

    See revision

    If device implementations include a screen or video output, they:

    • [C-1-4] MUST generate dynamic color tonal palettes as specified in the AOSP documentation of Settings.THEME_CUSTOMIZATION_OVERLAY_PACKAGES (see android.theme.customization.system_palette and android.theme.customization.theme_style).

    • [C-1-5] MUST generate dynamic color tonal palettes using color theme styles enumerated in the Settings.THEME_CUSTOMIZATION_OVERLAY_PACKAGES documentation (see android.theme.customization.theme_styles), namely TONAL_SPOT, VIBRANT, EXPRESSIVE, SPRITZ, RAINBOW, FRUIT_SALAD.

      "Source color" used to generate dynamic color tonal palettes when sent with android.theme.customization.system_palette (as documented in Settings.THEME_CUSTOMIZATION_OVERLAY_PACKAGES).

    • [C-1-6] MUST have a CAM16 chroma value of 5 or larger.

      • SHOULD be derived from the wallpaper via com.android.systemui.monet.ColorScheme#getSeedColors, which provides multiple valid source colors to pick one from.

      • SHOULD use the value 0xFF1B6EF3, if none of the provided colors meet the above source color requirement.

  • 3.8.17 Clipboard: Added new requirements section for content on the clipboard.

    See revision

    3.8.17. Clipboard

    Device implementations:

    • [C-0-1] MUST NOT send clipboard data to any component, activity, service, or across any network connection, without explicit user action (e.g., pressing a button on the overlay), except for services mentioned in 9.8.6 Content Capture and App Search.

    If device implementations generate a user-visible preview when content is copied to the clipboard for any ClipData item where ClipData.getDescription().getExtras() contains android.content.extra.IS_SENSITIVE, they:

    • [C-1-1] MUST redact the user visible preview

    The AOSP reference implementation satisfies these clipboard requirements.

  • 3.9.1.1 Device Owner Provisioning: Updates to device owner provisioning requirements.

    See revision

    If device implementations declare android.software.device_admin, they:

    • [C-1-1] MUST support enrolling a Device Policy Client (DPC) as a Device Owner app as described below:
      • When the device implementation has neither users nor user data configured, it:
        • [C-1-5] MUST enroll the DPC application as the Device Owner app or enable the DPC app to choose whether to become a Device Owner or a Profile Owner, if the device declares Near-Field Communications (NFC) support via the feature flag android.hardware.nfc and receives an NFC message containing a record with MIME type MIME_TYPE_PROVISIONING_NFC.
        • [C-1-8] MUST send the ACTION_GET_PROVISIONING_MODE intent after device owner provisioning is triggered so that the DPC app can choose whether to become a Device Owner or a Profile Owner, depending on the values of android.app.extra.PROVISIONING_ALLOWED_PROVISIONING_MODES, unless it can be determined from context that there is only one valid option. (such as for NFC based provisioning where Profile Owner provisioning is not supported).
        • [C-1-9] MUST send the ACTION_ADMIN_POLICY_COMPLIANCE intent to the Device Owner app if a Device Owner is established during provisioning regardless of the provisioning method used. The user must not be able to proceed in the Setup Wizard until the Device Owner app finishes.
      • When the device implementation has users or user data, it:
        • [C-1-7] MUST not enroll any DPC application as the Device Owner App any more.
    • [C-1-2] MUST show an appropriate disclosure notice (such as referenced in AOSP) and obtain affirmative consent from the end user prior to an app being set as Device Owner, unless the device is programmatically configured for Retail Demo Mode prior to on-screen, end-user interaction. require some affirmative action before or during the provisioning process to consent to an app being set as Device Owner. Consent can be via user action or by some programmatic means but appropriate disclosure notice (as referenced in AOSP) MUST be shown before device owner provisioning is initiated. Also, the programmatic device owner consent mechanism used (by enterprises) for device owner provisioning MUST NOT interfere with the Out-Of-Box Experience for non-enterprise use.
    • [C-1-3] MUST NOT hard code the consent or prevent the use of other device owner apps.

    If device implementations declare android.software.device_admin, but also include a proprietary Device Owner device management solution and provide a mechanism to promote an application configured in their solution as a "Device Owner equivalent" to the standard "Device Owner" as recognized by the standard Android DevicePolicyManager APIs, they:

    • [C-2-1] MUST have a process in place to verify that the specific app being promoted belongs to a legitimate enterprise device management solution and has been configured in the proprietary solution to have the rights equivalent as a "Device Owner".
    • [C-2-2] MUST show the same AOSP Device Owner consent disclosure as the flow initiated by android.app.action.PROVISION_MANAGED_DEVICE prior to enrolling the DPC application as "Device Owner".
    • [C-2-3] MUST NOT hard code the consent or prevent the use of other device owner apps.
    • MAY have user data on the device prior to enrolling the DPC application as "Device Owner".

  • 3.9.4 Device Management Role Requirements: Added a section for Device Management Role Requirements.

    See revision

    3.9.4 Device Policy Management Role Requirements

    If device implementations report android.software.device_admin or android.software.managed_users, then they:

    • [C-1-1] MUST support the device policy management role as defined in section 9.1. The application that holds the device policy management role MAY be defined by setting config_devicePolicyManagement to the package name. The package name MUST be followed by : and the signing certificate unless the application is preloaded.

    If a package name is not defined for config_devicePolicyManagement as described above:

    If a package name is defined for config_devicePolicyManagement as described above:

    • [C-3-1] The application MUST be installed on all profiles for a user.
    • [C-3-2] Device implementations MAY define an application that updates the device policy management role holder before provisioning by setting config_devicePolicyManagementUpdater.

    If a package name is defined for config_devicePolicyManagementUpdater as described above:

    • [C-4-1] The application MUST be preinstalled on the device.
    • [C-4-2] The application MUST implement an intent filter which resolves android.app.action.UPDATE_DEVICE_POLICY_MANAGEMENT_ROLE_HOLDER.

  • 3.18 Contacts: Adding information for new contacts.

    See revision

    Default account for new contacts: Contacts Provider provides APIs to manage the setting of the default account when creating a new contact.

    If device implementations preload a contacts app, then the pre-loaded contacts app:

    • [C-2-1] MUST handle the intent ContactsContract.Settings.ACTION_SET_DEFAULT_ACCOUNT to launch a UI for account selection and save the setting to Contacts Provider when an account is selected.

    • [C-2-2] MUST honor the default account setting when handling Intent.ACTION_INSERT and Intent.ACTION_INSERT_OR_EDIT for the ContactsContracts.Contacts.CONTENT_TYPE and ContactsContract.RawContacts.CONTENT_TYPE by initially selecting the account.

4. Application Packaging Compatibility

5. Multimedia Compatibility

  • 5.1.2 Audio Decoding: Added new requirements for decoders capable of outputting mutli-channel audio.

    See revision

    If device implementations support the decoding of AAC input buffers of multichannel streams (i.e. more than two channels) to PCM through the default AAC audio decoder in the android.media.MediaCodec API, then the following MUST be supported:

    • [C-7-1] MUST be able to be configured by the application using the decoding with the key KEY_MAX_OUTPUT_CHANNEL_COUNT to control whether the content is downmixed to stereo (when using a value of 2) or is output using the native number of channels (when using a value equal or greater to that number). For instance a value of 6 or greater would configure a decoder to output 6 channels when fed 5.1 content.
    • [C-7-2] When decoding, the decoder MUST advertise the channel mask being used on the output format with the KEY_CHANNEL_MASK key, using the android.media.AudioFormat constants (example: CHANNEL_OUT_5POINT1).

    If device implementations support audio decoders other than the default AAC audio decoder and are capable of outputting multi-channel audio (i.e. more than 2 channels) when fed compressed multi-channel content, then:

    • [C-SR] The decoder is STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to be able to be configured by the application using the decoding with the key KEY_MAX_OUTPUT_CHANNEL_COUNT to control whether the content is downmixed to stereo (when using a value of 2) or is output using the native number of channels (when using a value equal or greater to that number). For instance a value of 6 or greater would configure a decoder to output 6 channels when fed 5.1 content.
    • [C-SR] When decoding, the decoder is STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to advertise the channel mask being used on the output format with the KEY_CHANNEL_MASK key, using the android.media.AudioFormat constants (example: CHANNEL_OUT_5POINT1).

  • 5.4.1 Raw Audio Capture and Microphone Information: Updates to supported audio sources for audio input streams.

    See revision

    If device implementations declare android.hardware.microphone, they:

  • 5.4.2 Capture for Voice Recognition: Updated requirements for voice recognition audio stream and added requirements for microphone gain levels.

    See revision

    If device implementations declare android.hardware.microphone, they:

    • SHOULD record the voice recognition audio stream with approximately flat amplitude versus frequency characteristics: specifically, ±3 dB, from 100 Hz to 4000 Hz.
    • SHOULD record the voice recognition audio stream with input sensitivity set such that a 90 dB sound power level (SPL) source at 1000 Hz yields RMS of 2500 for 16-bit samples.

    • SHOULD exhibit approximately flat amplitude-versus-frequency characteristics in the mid-frequency range: specifically ±3dB from 100 Hz to 4000 Hz for each and every microphone used to record the voice recognition audio source.
    • [C-SR] are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to exhibit amplitude levels in the low frequency range: specifically from ±20 dB from 30 Hz to 100 Hz compared to the mid-frequency range for each and every microphone used to record the voice recognition audio source.
    • [C-SR] are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to exhibit amplitude levels in the high frequency range: specifically from ±30 dB from 4000 Hz to 22 KHz compared to the mid-frequency range for each and every microphone used to record the voice recognition audio source.
    • SHOULD set audio input sensitivity such that a 1000 Hz sinusoidal tone source played at 90 dB Sound Pressure Level (SPL) (measured next to the microphone) yields an ideal response of RMS 2500 within a range of 1770 and 3530 for 16 bit-samples (or -22.35 db ±3dB Full Scale for floating point/double precision samples) for each and every microphone used to record the voice recognition audio source.

  • 5.4.6 Microphone Gain Levels: Moved requirements for Microphone Gain Levels to section 5.4.2.

    See revision

    5.4.6. Microphone Gain Levels [Moved to 5.4.2]

    If device implementations declare android.hardware.microphone, they:

    • SHOULD exhibit approximately flat amplitude-versus-frequency characteristics in the mid-frequency range: specifically ±3dB from 100 Hz to 4000 Hz for each and every microphone used to record the voice recognition audio source.
    • [C-SR] are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to exhibit amplitude levels in the low frequency range: specifically from ±20 dB from 5 Hz to 100 Hz compared to the mid-frequency range for each and every microphone used to record the voice recognition audio source.
    • [C-SR] are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to exhibit amplitude levels in the high frequency range: specifically from ±30 dB from 4000 Hz to 22 KHz compared to the mid-frequency range for each and every microphone used to record the voice recognition audio source.
    • SHOULD set audio input sensitivity such that a 1000 Hz sinusoidal tone source played at 90 dB Sound Pressure Level (SPL) yields a response with RMS of 2500 for 16 bit-samples (or -22.35 dB Full Scale for floating point/double precision samples) for each and every microphone used to record the voice recognition audio source.

  • 5.5.4 Audio Offload: Updates to the audio offload playback requirements.

    See revision

    If device implementations support audio offload playback, they:

    • [C-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to trim the played gapless audio content between two clips with the same format when specified by the AudioTrack gapless API and the media container for MediaPlayer.

  • 5.6 Audio Latency: Updates to the audio latency requirements.

    See revision

    For the purposes of this section, use the following definitions:

    • cold output jitter. The variability among separate measurements of cold output latency values.
    • cold input jitter. The variability among separate measurements of cold input latency values.

    If device implementations declare android.hardware.audio.output, they MUST meet or exceed the following requirements:

    • [C-1-2] Cold output latency of 500 milliseconds or less.
    • [C-1-3] Opening an output stream using AAudioStreamBuilder_openStream() MUST take less than 1000 milliseconds.

    If device implementations declare android.hardware.audio.output they are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to meet or exceed the following requirements:

    • [C-SR] Cold output latency of 100 milliseconds or less over the speaker data path. Existing and new devices that run this version of Android are VERY STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to meet these requirements now. In a future platform release, we will require Cold output latency of 200 ms or less as a MUST.
    • [C-SR] Minimize the cold output jitter.

    If device implementations include android.hardware.microphone, they MUST meet these input audio requirements:

    • [C-3-2] Cold input latency of 500 milliseconds or less.
    • [C-3-3] Opening an input stream using AAudioStreamBuilder_openStream() MUST take less than 1000 milliseconds.

    If device implementations include android.hardware.microphone, they are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to meet these input audio requirements:

    • [C-SR] Cold input latency of 100 milliseconds or less over the microphone data path. Existing and new devices that run this version of Android are VERY STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to meet these requirements now. In a future platform release we will require Cold input latency of 200 ms or less as a MUST.

    • [C-SR] Continuous input latency of 30 milliseconds or less.
    • [C-SR] Minimize the cold input jitter.

  • 5.10 Professional Audio: Updates to audio latency requirements for professional audio support.

    See revision

    If device implementations report support for feature android.hardware.audio.pro via the android.content.pm.PackageManager class, they:

    • [C-1-2] MUST have the continuous round-trip audio latency, as defined in section 5.6 Audio Latency of 25 milliseconds or less and SHOULD be 10 milliseconds or less over at least one supported path.
    • [C-1-5] MUST meet latencies and USB audio requirements using the AAudio native audio API and AAUDIO_PERFORMANCE_MODE_LOW_LATENCY.
    • [C-1-8] MUST have an average Tap-to-tone latency of 80 milliseconds or less over at least 5 measurements over the speaker to microphone data path.
    • [C-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to provide a consistent level of CPU performance while audio is active and CPU load is varying. This should be tested using the Android app SynthMark. SynthMark uses a software synthesizer running on a simulated audio framework that measures system performance. See the SynthMark documentation for an explanation of the benchmarks. The SynthMark app needs to be run using the “Automated Test” option and achieve the following results: * voicemark.90 >= 32 voices * latencymark.fixed.little <= 15 msec * latencymark.dynamic.little <= 50 msec
    • SHOULD have a latency from touch input to audio output of less than or equal to 40 ms.

    If device implementations include a 4 conductor 3.5mm audio jack, they:

    • [C-2-1] MUST have a mean Continuous Round-trip Audio Latency, as defined in section 5.6 Audio Latency, of 20 milliseconds or less, over 5 measurements with a Mean Absolute Deviation less than 5 milliseconds over the audio jack path using an Audio Loopback Dongle.

  • 5.12 HDR Video: Added a new section for HDR Video requirements.

6. Developer Tools and Options Compatibility

  • 6.1 Developer Tools: Updates to connectivity and GPU Kernel requirements.

    See revision

    If device implementations support adb connections to a host machine via Wi-Fi or Ethernet, they:

    • [C-4-1] MUST have the AdbManager#isAdbWifiSupported() method return true.

    If device implementations support adb connections to a host machine via Wi-Fi or Ethernet, and includes at least one camera, they:

    • [C-5-1] MUST have the AdbManager#isAdbWifiQrSupported() method return true.

    • GPU work information

      Device implementations:

      • [C-6-1] MUST implement the shell command dumpsys gpu --gpuwork to display the aggregated GPU work data returned by the power/gpu_work_period kernel tracepoint, or display no data if the tracepoint is not supported. The AOSP implementation is frameworks/native/services/gpuservice/gpuwork/.

7. Hardware Compatibility

  • 7.1.4.1 OpenGL ES: Update to recommended extensions.

    See revision

    If device implementations support any of the OpenGL ES versions, they:

    • SHOULD support the EGL_IMG_context_priority and EGL_EXT_protected_content extensions.

  • 7.1.4.2 Vulkan: Updates to version supported for Vulkan.

    See revision

    If device implementations support OpenGL ES 3.1, they:

    • [SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to include support for Vulkan 1.3. Vulkan 1.1
    • MUST NOT support a Vulkan Variant version (i.e. the variant part of the Vulkan core version MUST be zero).

    If device implementations include a screen or video output, they:

    • [SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to include support for Vulkan 1.3. Vulkan 1.1

    If device implementations include support for Vulkan 1.0 or higher, they:

    • SHOULD support VkPhysicalDeviceProtectedMemoryFeatures and VK_EXT_global_priority.
    • [C-1-12] MUST NOT enumerate support for the VK_KHR_performance_query extension.
    • [C-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to satisfy the requirements specified by the Android Baseline 2021 profile.

  • 7.2.3 Navigation Keys:

    See revision

    Device implementations:

    • [C-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to provide all navigation functions as cancellable. 'Cancellable' is defined as the user's ability to prevent the navigation function from executing (e.g. going home, going back, etc.) if the swipe is not released past a certain threshold.

    If the back navigation function is provided and the user cancels the Back gesture, then:

    • [C-8-1] OnBackInvokedCallback.onBackCancelled() MUST be called.
    • [C-8-2] OnBackInvokedCallback.onBackInvoked() MUST NOT be called.
    • [C-8-3] KEYCODE_BACK event MUST NOT be dispatched.

    If the back navigation function is provided but the foreground application does NOT have an OnBackInvokedCallback registered, then:

    • The system SHOULD provide an animation for the foreground application that suggests that the user is going back, as provided in AOSP.

    If device implementations provide support for the system API setNavBarMode to allow any system app with android.permission.STATUS_BAR permission to set the navigation bar mode, then they:

    • [C-9-1] MUST provide support for kid-friendly icons or button-based navigation as provided in the AOSP code.

  • 7.3.1 Accelerometer: Updates to sensor requirements for accelerometers.

    See revision

    If device implementations include an accelerometer, a 3-axis accelerometer, they:

    • [C-1-2] MUST implement and report TYPE_ACCELEROMETER sensor.
    • [SR] are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to implement the TYPE_SIGNIFICANT_MOTION composite sensor.
    • [SR] are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to implement and report TYPE_ACCELEROMETER_UNCALIBRATED sensor. Android devices are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to meet this requirement so they will be able to upgrade to the future platform release where this might become REQUIRED.
    • SHOULD implement the TYPE_SIGNIFICANT_MOTION, TYPE_TILT_DETECTOR, TYPE_STEP_DETECTOR, TYPE_STEP_COUNTER composite sensors as described in the Android SDK document.

    If device implementations include a 3-axis accelerometer, they:

    • [C-2-1] MUST implement and report TYPE_ACCELEROMETER sensor.
    • [C-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to implement the TYPE_SIGNIFICANT_MOTION composite sensor.
    • [C-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to implement and report TYPE_ACCELEROMETER_UNCALIBRATED sensor. Android devices are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to meet this requirement so they will be able to upgrade to the future platform release where this might become REQUIRED.
    • SHOULD implement the TYPE_SIGNIFICANT_MOTION, TYPE_TILT_DETECTOR, TYPE_STEP_DETECTOR, TYPE_STEP_COUNTER composite sensors as described in the Android SDK document.

    If device implementations include an accelerometer with less than 3 axes, they:

    • [C-3-1] MUST implement and report TYPE_ACCELEROMETER_LIMITED_AXES sensor.
    • [C-SR] Are STRONGLY_RECOMMENDED to implement and report TYPE_ACCELEROMETER_LIMITED_AXES_UNCALIBRATED sensor.

    If device implementations include a 3-axis accelerometer and any of the TYPE_SIGNIFICANT_MOTION, TYPE_TILT_DETECTOR, TYPE_STEP_DETECTOR, TYPE_STEP_COUNTER composite sensors are implemented:

    • [C-4-1] The sum of their power consumption MUST always be less than 4 mW.

    If device implementations include a 3-axis accelerometer and a 3-axis gyroscope sensor, they:

    • [C-5-1] MUST implement the TYPE_GRAVITY and TYPE_LINEAR_ACCELERATION composite sensors.

    If device implementations include a 3-axis accelerometer, a 3-axis gyroscope sensor, and a magnetometer sensor, they:

    • [C-6-1] MUST implement a TYPE_ROTATION_VECTOR composite sensor.

  • 7.3.4 Gyroscopes: Updates to sensor requirements for gyroscopes.

    See revision

    If device implementations include a gyroscope, they:

    • [C-1-1] MUST be able to report events up to a frequency of at least 50 Hz.
    • [C-1-4] MUST have a resolution of 12-bits or more.
    • [C-1-5] MUST be temperature compensated.
    • [C-1-6] MUST be calibrated and compensated while in use, and preserve the compensation parameters between device reboots.
    • [C-1-7] MUST have a variance no greater than 1e-7 rad^2 / s^2 per Hz (variance per Hz, or rad^2 / s). The variance is allowed to vary with the sampling rate, but MUST be constrained by this value. In other words, if you measure the variance of the gyro at 1 Hz sampling rate it SHOULD be no greater than 1e-7 rad^2/s^2.
    • [C-SR] Calibration error is STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to be less than 0.01 rad/s when device is stationary at room temperature.
    • [C-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to have a resolution of 16-bits or more.
    • SHOULD report events up to at least 200 Hz.

    If device implementations include a 3-axis gyroscope, they:

    • [C-2-1] MUST implement the TYPE_GYROSCOPE sensor.

    If device implementations include a gyroscope with less than 3 axes, they:

    • [C-3-1] MUST implement and report TYPE_GYROSCOPE_LIMITED_AXES sensor.
    • [C-SR] Are STRONGLY_RECOMMENDED to implement and report TYPE_GYROSCOPE_LIMITED_AXES_UNCALIBRATED sensor.

    If device implementations include a 3-axis gyroscope, an accelerometer sensor and a magnetometer sensor, they:

    • [C-4-1] MUST implement a TYPE_ROTATION_VECTOR composite sensor.

    If device implementations include a 3-axis accelerometer and a 3-axis gyroscope sensor, they:

    • [C-5-1] MUST implement the TYPE_GRAVITY and TYPE_LINEAR_ACCELERATION composite sensors.

  • 7.3.10 Biometric Sensors: Updates to sensor requirements for biometric sensors.

    See revision

    Biometric sensors can be classified as Class 3 (formerly Strong), Class 2 (formerly Weak), or Class 1 (formerly Convenience) based on their spoof and imposter acceptance rates, and on the security of the biometric pipeline. This classification determines the capabilities the biometric sensor has to interface with the platform and with third-party applications. Sensors need to meet additional requirements as detailed below if they wish to be classified as either Class 1, Class 2 or Class 3. Sensors are classified as Class 1 by default, and need to meet additional requirements as detailed below if they wish to be classified as either Class 2 or Class 3. Both Class 2 and Class 3 biometrics get additional capabilities as detailed below.

    If device implementations wish to treat a biometric sensor as Class 1 (formerly Convenience), they:

    • [C-1-11] MUST have a spoof and imposter acceptance rate not higher than 30%, with (1) a spoof and imposter acceptance rate for Level A presentation attack instrument (PAI) species not higher than 30%, and (2) a spoof and imposter acceptance rate of Level B PAI species not higher than 40%, as measured by the Android Biometrics Test Protocols.

    If device implementations wish to treat a biometric sensor as Class 2 (formerly Weak), they:

    • [C-2-2] MUST have a spoof and imposter acceptance rate not higher than 20%, with (1) a spoof and imposter acceptance rate for Level A presentation attack instrument (PAI) species not higher than 20%, and (2) a spoof and imposter acceptance rate of Level B PAI species not higher than 30%, as measured by the Android Biometrics Test Protocols.

    If device implementations wish to treat a biometric sensor as Class 3 (formerly Strong), they:

    • [C-3-3] MUST have a spoof and imposter acceptance rate not higher than 7%, with (1) a spoof and imposter acceptance rate for Level A presentation attack instrument (PAI) species not higher than 7%, and (2) a spoof and imposter acceptance rate of Level B PAI species not higher than 20%, as measured by the Android Biometrics Test Protocols.

  • 7.3.13 IEEE 802.1.15.4 (UWB): Added a new requirements section for UWB.

    See revision

    7.3.13. IEEE 802.1.15.4 (UWB)

    If device implementations include support for 802.1.15.4 and expose the functionality to a third-party application, they:

    • [C-1-1] MUST implement the corresponding Android API in android.uwb.
    • [C-1-2] MUST report the hardware feature flag android.hardware.uwb.
    • [C-1-3] MUST support all the relevant UWB profiles defined in Android implementation.
    • [C-1-4] MUST provide a user affordance to allow the user to toggle the UWB radio on/off state.
    • [C-1-5] MUST enforce that apps using UWB radio hold UWB_RANGING permission (under NEARBY_DEVICES permission group).
    • [C-1-6] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to pass the relevant conformance and certification tests defined by standard organizations, including FIRA, CCC and CSA.

  • 7.4.1 Telephony: Updates to telephony requirements for GSM and CDMA telephony, and cellular usage settings.

    See revision

    If device implementations support eUICCs or eSIMs/embedded SIMs and include a proprietary mechanism to make eSIM functionality available for third-party developers, they:

    If device implementations include GSM or CDMA telephony, then:

    If the device device implementations include GSM or CDMA telephony and provide a system status bar, then:

    • [C-6-7] MUST select a representative active subscription for a given group UUID to display to the user in any affordances that provide SIM status information. Examples of such affordances include the status bar cellular signal icon or quick settings tile.
    • [C-SR] It is STRONGLY RECOMMENDED that the representative subscription is chosen to be the active data subscription unless the device is in a voice call, during which it is STRONGLY RECOMMENDED that the representative subscription is the active voice subscription.

    If device implementations include GSM or CDMA telephony, then:

    • [C-6-8] MUST be capable of opening and concurrently utilizing the maximum number of logical channels (20 in total) for each UICC per ETSI TS 102 221.
    • [C-6-10] MUST NOT apply any of the following behaviors to active carrier apps (as designated by TelephonyManager#getCarrierServicePackageName) automatically or without explicit user confirmation:
      • Revoke or limit network access
      • Revoke permissions
      • Restrict background or foreground app execution beyond the existing power management features included in AOSP
      • Disable or uninstall the app

    If device device implementations include GSM or CDMA telephony and all active, non-opportunistic subscriptions that share a group UUID are disabled, physically removed from the device, or marked opportunistic, then the device:

    • [C-7-1] MUST automatically disable all remaining active opportunistic subscriptions in the same group.

    If device implementations include GSM telephony but not CDMA telephony, they:

    If the device implementations support eUICCs with multiple ports and profiles, they:

  • 7.4.1.1 Number Blocking Compatibility: Updates to the number blocking requirements.

    See revision

    If device implementations report the android.hardware.telephony feature, they:

    • [C-1-4] MUST write to the platform call log provider for a blocked call and MUST filter calls with BLOCKED_TYPE out of the default call log view in the pre-installed dialer app.
    • SHOULD provide a user affordance to show blocked calls in the pre-installed dialer app.

  • 7.4.1.3 Cellular NAT-T Keepalive Offload: New section for Cellular NAT-T Keepalive Offload.

    See revision

    7.4.1.3. Cellular NAT-T Keepalive Offload

    Device implementations:

    • SHOULD include support for Cellular keepalive offload.

    If device implementations include support for Cellular keepalive offload and exposes the functionality to third-party apps, they:

    • [C-1-1] MUST support the SocketKeepAlive API.
    • [C-1-2] MUST support at least one concurrent keepalive slot over cellular.
    • [C-1-3] MUST support as many concurrent cellular keepalive slots as are supported by the Cellular Radio HAL.
    • [C-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to support at least three cellular keepalive slots per radio instance.

    If device implementations do not include support for cellular keepalive offload, they:

    • [C-2-1] MUST return ERROR_UNSUPPORTED.

  • 7.4.2.5 Wi-Fi Location (Wi-Fi Round Trip Time - RTT): Updates to Wi-Fi location accuracy.

    See revision

    If device implementations include support for Wi-Fi Location and expose the functionality to third-party apps, then they:

    • [C-1-4] MUST be accurate to within 2 meters at 80 MHz bandwidth at the 68th percentile (as calculated with the Cumulative Distribution Function).
    • [C-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to report it accurately to within 1.5 meters at 80 MHz bandwidth at the 68th percentile (as calculated with the Cumulative Distribution Function).

  • 7.4.2.6 Wi-Fi Keepalive Offload: Updated to add cellular keepalive offload requirements.

    See revision

    Device implementations:

    • SHOULD include support for Wi-Fi keepalive offload.

    If device implementations include support for Wi-Fi keepalive offload and expose the functionality to third-party apps, they:

    • [C-1-1] MUST support the SocketKeepAlive API.
    • [C-1-2] MUST support at least three concurrent keepalive slots over Wi-Fi
      and at least one keepalive slot over cellular.

    If device implementations do not include support for Wi-Fi keepalive offload, they:

  • 7.4.2.9 Trust On First Use (TOFU): Added Trust on First Use requirements section.

    See revision

    7.4.2.9 Trust On First Use (TOFU)

    If device implementations support Trust on first usage (TOFU) and allow the user to define WPA/WPA2/WPA3-Enterprise configurations, then they:

    • [C-4-1] MUST provide the user an option to select to use TOFU.

  • 7.4.3 Bluetooth: Update to Bluetooth requirements.

    See revision

    If device implementations support Bluetooth Audio profile, they:

    • SHOULD support Advanced Audio Codecs and Bluetooth Audio Codecs (e.g. LDAC) with A2DP.

    If device implementations return true for the BluetoothAdapter.isLeAudioSupported() API, then they:

    • [C-7-1] MUST support unicast client.
    • [C-7-2] MUST support 2M PHY.
    • [C-7-3] MUST support LE Extended advertising.
    • [C-7-4] MUST support at least 2 CIS connections in a CIG.
    • [C-7-5] MUST enable BAP unicast client, CSIP set coordinator, MCP server, VCP controller, CCP server simultaneously.
    • [C-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to enable HAP unicast client.

    If device implementations return true for the BluetoothAdapter.isLeAudioBroadcastSourceSupported() API, then they:

    • [C-8-1] MUST support at least 2 BIS links in a BIG.
    • [C-8-2] MUST enable BAP broadcast source, BAP broadcast assistant simultaneously.
    • [C-8-3] MUST support LE Periodic advertising.

    If device implementations return true for the BluetoothAdapter.isLeAudioBroadcastAssistantSupported() API, then they:

    • [C-9-1] MUST support PAST (Periodic Advertising Sync Transfer).
    • [C-9-2] MUST support LE Periodic advertising.

    If device implementations declare FEATURE_BLUETOOTH_LE, they:

    • [C-10-1] MUST have RSSI measurements be within +/-9dB for 95% of the measurements at 1m distance from a reference device transmitting at ADVERTISE_TX_POWER_HIGH in line of sight environment.
    • [C-10-2] MUST include Rx/Tx corrections to reduce per-channel deviations so that the measurements on each of the 3 channels, on each of the antennas (if multiple are used), are within +/-3dB of one another for 95% of the measurements.
    • [C-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to measure and compensate for Rx offset to ensure the median BLE RSSI is -60dBm +/-10 dB at 1m distance from a reference device transmitting at ADVERTISE_TX_POWER_HIGH, where devices are oriented such that they are on 'parallel planes' with screens facing the same direction.
    • [C-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to measure and compensate for Tx offset to ensure the median BLE RSSI is -60dBm +/-10 dB when scanning from a reference device positioned at 1m distance and transmitting at ADVERTISE_TX_POWER_HIGH, where devices are oriented such that they are on 'parallel planes' with screens facing the same direction.

    It is STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to follow the measurement setup steps specified in Presence Calibration Requirements.

    If device implementations support Bluetooth version 5.0, then they:

    • [C-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to provide support for:
      • LE 2M PHY
      • LE Codec PHY
      • LE Advertising Extension
      • Periodic advertising
      • At least 10 advertisement sets
      • At least 8 LE concurrent connections. Each connection can be in either connection topology roles.
      • LE Link Layer Privacy
      • A "resolving list" size of at least 8 entries

  • 7.4.9 UWB: Added a requirements section for UWB hardware.

    See revision

    7.4.9. UWB

    If device implementations report support for feature android.hardware.uwb via the android.content.pm.PackageManager class, then they:

    • [C-1-1] MUST ensure the distance measurements are within +/-15 cm for 95% of the measurements in the line of sight environment at 1m distance in a non-reflective chamber.
    • [C-1-2] MUST ensure that the median of the distance measurements at 1m from the reference device is within [0.75m, 1.25m], where ground truth distance is measured from the top edge of the DUT held face up and tilted 45 degrees.

    It is STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to follow the measurement setup steps specified in Presence Calibration Requirements.

  • 7.5 Cameras: Updates to the requirements for HDR 10-bit output capability.

    See revision

    If device implementations support HDR 10-bit output capability, then they:

    • [C-2-1] MUST support at least the HLG HDR profile for every camera device that supports 10-bit output.
    • [C-2-2] MUST support 10-bit output for either the primary rear-facing or the primary front-facing camera.
    • [C-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to support 10-bit output for both primary cameras.
    • [C-2-3] MUST support the same HDR profiles for all BACKWARD_COMPATIBLE-capable physical sub-cameras of a logical camera, and the logical camera itself.

    For Logical camera devices which support 10-bit HDR that implement the android.hardware.camera2.CaptureRequest#CONTROL_ZOOM_RATIO API, they:

    • [C-3-1] MUST support switching between all the backwards-compatible physical cameras via the CONTROL_ZOOM_RATIO control on the logical camera.

  • 7.7.2 USB Host Mode: Revisions for dual role ports.

    See revision

    If device implementations include a USB port supporting host mode and USB Type-C, they:

    • [C-4-1] MUST implement Dual Role Port functionality as defined by the USB Type-C specification (section 4.5.1.3.3). For Dual Role Ports, On devices that include a 3.5mm audio jack, the USB sink detection (host mode) MAY be off by default but it MUST be possible for the user to enable it.

  • 7.11 Media Performance Class: Updated to include Android T.

    See revision

    If device implementations return non-zero value for android.os.Build.VERSION_CODES.MEDIA_PERFORMANCE_CLASS, they:

    • [C-1-3] MUST meet all requirements for "Media Performance Class" described in section 2.2.7.

    In other words, media performance class in Android T is only defined for handheld devices at version T, S or R.

    See section 2.2.7 for device-specific requirements.

9. Security Model Compatibility

  • 9.1 Permissions: Extend accepted paths for permissions allowlists for preinstalled apps to APEX files.

    See revision

    • [C-0-2] Permissions with a protectionLevel of PROTECTION_FLAG_PRIVILEGED MUST only be granted to apps preinstalled in the privileged path(s) of the system image (as well as APEX files) and be within the subset of the explicitly allowlisted permissions for each app. The AOSP implementation meets this requirement by reading and honoring the allowlisted permissions for each app from the files in the etc/permissions/ path and using the system/priv-app path as the privileged path.

  • 9.7 Security Features: Updates to initialization requirements to maintain kernel integrity.

    See revision

    Kernel integrity and self-protection features are integral to Android security. Device implementations:

    • [C-SR] Are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to enable stack initialization in the kernel to prevent uses of uninitialized local variables (CONFIG_INIT_STACK_ALL or CONFIG_INIT_STACK_ALL_ZERO). Also, device implementations SHOULD NOT assume the value used by the compiler to initialize the locals.

  • 9.8.7 Privacy — Clipboard Access: Automatically clear clipboard data after 60 minutes following a cut/copy/paste activity to protect user privacy.

    See revision

    Device implementations:

    • [C-0-1] MUST NOT return a clipped data from the clipboard (e.g. via the ClipboardManager API) unless the 3rd-party app is the default IME or is the app that currently has focus.
    • [C-0-2] MUST clear clipboard data at most 60 minutes after it has last been placed in a clipboard or read from a clipboard.

  • 9.11 Keys and Credentials: Updates to the secure lock screen requirements, including the addition of ECDH and 3DES to crypto algorithms.

    See revision

    When the device implementation supports a secure lock screen, it:

    • [C-1-2] MUST have implementations of RSA, AES, ECDSA, ECDH (if IKeyMintDevice is supported), 3DES, and HMAC cryptographic algorithms and MD5, SHA1, and SHA-2 family hash functions to properly support the Android Keystore system's supported algorithms in an area that is securely isolated from the code running on the kernel and above. Secure isolation MUST block all potential mechanisms by which kernel or userspace code might access the internal state of the isolated environment, including DMA. The upstream Android Open Source Project (AOSP) meets this requirement by using the Trusty implementation, but another ARM TrustZone-based solution or a third-party reviewed secure implementation of a proper hypervisor-based isolation are alternative options.

  • 9.11.1 Secure Lock Screen, Authentication, and Virtual Devices: Added requirements section for virtual devices and authentication transfers.

    See revision

    If device implementations add or modify the authentication methods to unlock the lock screen and a new authentication method is based on a physical token or the location:

    • [C-6-3] The user MUST be challenged for one of the recommended primary authentication methods (e.g.PIN, pattern, password) at least once every 4 hours or less. When a physical token meets the requirements for TrustAgent implementations in C-X, timeout restrictions defined in C-9-5 apply instead.

    If device implementations allow applications to create secondary virtual displays and do not support associated input events, such as via VirtualDeviceManager, they:

    • [C-9-1] MUST lock these secondary virtual display(s) when the device's default display is locked, and unlock these secondary virtual display(s) when the device's default display is unlocked.

    If device implementations allow applications to create secondary virtual displays and support associated input events, such as via VirtualDeviceManager, they:

    • [C-10-1] MUST support separate lock states per virtual device
    • [C-10-2] MUST disconnect all virtual devices upon idle timeout
    • [C-10-3] MUST have an idle timeout
    • [C-10-4] MUST lock all displays when the user initiates a lockdown, including via the lockdown user affordance required for handheld devices (see Section 2.2.5[9.11/H-1-2])
    • [C-10-5] MUST have separate virtual device instances per user
    • [C-10-6] MUST disable the creation of associated input events via VirtualDeviceManager when indicated by DevicePolicyManager.setNearbyAppStreamingPolicy
    • [C-10-7] MUST use a separate clipboard solely for each virtual device (or disable the clipboard for virtual devices)
    • [C-10-11] MUST disable authentication UI on virtual devices, including knowledge factor entry and biometric prompt
    • [C-10-12] MUST restrict intents initiated from a virtual device to display only on the same virtual device
    • [C-10-13] MUST not use a virtual device lock state as user authentication authorization with the Android Keystore System. See KeyGenParameterSpec.Builder.setUserAuthentication*.

    When device implementations allow the user to transfer the primary authentication knowledge-factor from a source device to a target device, such as for initial setup of the target device, they:

    • [C-11-1] MUST encrypt the knowledge-factor with protection guarantees similar to those described in the Google Cloud Key Vault Service security whitepaper when transferring the knowledge-factor from the source device to the target device such that the knowledge-factor cannot be remotely decrypted or used to remotely unlock either device.
    • [C-11-2] MUST, on the source device , ask the user to confirm the knowledge-factor of the source device before transferring the knowledge-factor to the target device.
    • [C-11-3] MUST, on a target device lacking any set primary authentication knowledge-factor, ask the user to confirm a transferred knowledge-factor on the target device before setting that knowledge-factor as the primary authentication knowledge-factor for the target device and before making available any data transferred from a source device.

    If device implementations have a secure lock screen and include one or more trust agents, which call the TrustAgentService.grantTrust() System API with the FLAG_GRANT_TRUST_TEMPORARY_AND_RENEWABLE flag they:

    • [C-12-1] MUST only call grantTrust() with the flag when connected to a proximate physical device with a lockscreen of its own, and when the user has authenticated their identity against that lockscreen. Proximate devices can use on-wrist or on-body detection mechanisms after a one-time user unlock to satisfy the user authentication requirement.
    • [C-12-2] MUST put the device implementation into the TrustState.TRUSTABLE state when the screen is turned off (such as via a button press or display time out) and the TrustAgent has not revoked trust. The AOSP satisfies this requirement.
    • [C-12-3] MUST only move the device from TrustState.TRUSTABLE to the TrustState.TRUSTED state if the TrustAgent is still granting trust based on the requirements in C-12-1.
    • [C-12-4] MUST call TrustManagerService.revokeTrust() after a maximum of 24 hours from granting trust, an 8 hour idle window, or when the underlying connection to the proximate physical device is lost.

    If device implementations allow applications to create secondary virtual displays and support associated input events such as via VirtualDeviceManager and the displays are not marked with VIRTUAL_DISPLAY_FLAG_SECURE, they:

    • [C-13-8] MUST block activities with the attribute android:canDisplayOnRemoteDevices or the meta-data android.activity.can_display_on_remote_devices set to false from being started on the virtualdevice.
    • [C-13-9] MUST block activities which do not explicitly enable streaming and which indicate they show sensitive content, including via SurfaceView#setSecure, FLAG_SECURE, or SYSTEM_FLAG_HIDE_NON_SYSTEM_OVERLAY_WINDOWS, from being started on the virtual device.
    • [C-13-10] MUST disable installation of apps initiated from virtual devices.

  • 9.11.2 Strongbox: Making insider attack resistance (IAR) a necessary requirement.

    See revision

    To validate compliance with [C-1-3] through [C-1-9], device implementations:

    • [C-SR] are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to provide insider attack resistance (IAR), which means that an insider with access to firmware signing keys cannot produce firmware that causes the StrongBox to leak secrets, to bypass functional security requirements or otherwise enable access to sensitive user data. The recommended way to implement IAR is to allow firmware updates only when the primary user password is provided via the IAuthSecret HAL. IAR will become a MUST requirement in Android 14 (AOSP experimental).

  • 9.11.3 Identity Credential: Added information about the Identity Credential system reference implementation.

    See revision

    The Identity Credential System is defined and achieved by implementing all APIs in the android.security.identity.* package. These APIs allows app developers to store and retrieve user identity documents. Device implementations:

    The upstream Android Open Source Project provides a reference implementation of a trusted application (libeic) that can be used to implement the Identity Credential system.

  • 9.11.4 ID Attestation: Added a section for ID attestation requirement.

    See revision

    9.11.4. ID Attestation

    Device implementations MUST support ID attestation.

  • 9.17 Android Virtualization Framework: Added a requirements section for Android Virtualization Framework.

    See revision

    9.17. Android Virtualization Framework

    If the device implements support for the Android Virtualization Framework APIs (android.system.virtualmachine.*), the Android host:

    • [C-1-1] MUST support all the APIs defined by the android.system.virtualmachine.* package.
    • [C-1-2] MUST NOT modify the Android SELinux and permission model for the management of Protected Virtual Machines.
    • [C-1-3] MUST NOT modify, omit, or replace the neverallow rules present within the system/sepolicy provided in the upstream Android Open Source Project (AOSP) and the policy MUST compile with all neverallow rules present.
    • [C-1-4] MUST NOT allow untrusted code (e.g. 3p apps) to create and run a Protected Virtual Machine. Note: This might change in future Android releases.
    • [C-1-5] MUST NOT allow a Protected Virtual Machine to execute code that is not part of the factory image or their updates. Anything that is not covered by Android Verified Boot (e.g. files downloaded from the Internet or sideloaded) MUST NOT be allowed to be run in a Protected Virtual Machine.

    If the device implements support for the Android Virtualization Framework APIs (android.system.virtualmachine.*), then any Protected Virtual Machine instance:

    • [C-2-1] MUST be able to run all operating systems available in the virtualization APEX in a Protected Virtual Machine.
    • [C-2-2] MUST NOT allow a Protected Virtual Machine to run an operating system that is not signed by the device implementor or OS vendor.
    • [C-2-3] MUST NOT allow a Protected Virtual Machine to execute data as code (e.g. SELinux neverallow execmem).
    • [C-2-4] MUST NOT modify, omit, or replace the neverallow rules present within the system/sepolicy/microdroid provided in the upstream Android Open Source Project (AOSP).
    • [C-2-5] MUST implement Protected Virtual Machine defense-in-depth mechanisms (e.g. SELinux for pVMs) even for non-Microdroid operating systems.
    • [C-2-6] MUST ensure that the pVM firmware refuses to boot if it cannot verify the initial image.
    • [C-2-7] MUST ensure that the pVM firmware refuses to boot if the integrity of the instance.img is compromised.

    If the device implements support for the Android Virtualization Framework APIs (android.system.virtualmachine.*), then the hypervisor:

    • [C-3-1] MUST NOT allow any pVM to have access to a page belonging to another entity (i.e. other pVM or hypervisor), unless explicitly shared by the page owner. This includes the host VM. This applies to both CPU and DMA accesses.
    • [C-3-2] MUST wipe a page after it is used by a VM and before it is returned to the host (e.g. the pVM is destroyed).
    • [C-3-3] MUST ensure that the pVM firmware is loaded and executed prior to any code in a pVM.
    • [C-3-4] MUST ensure that BCC and CDIs provided to a pVM instance can only be derived by that particular instance.

    If the device implements support for the Android Virtualization Framework APIs, then across all areas:

    • [C-4-1] MUST NOT provide functionality to a pVM that allows bypassing the Android Security Model.

    If the device implements support for the Android Virtualization Framework APIs, then:

    • [C-5-1] MUST support Isolated Compilation of an ART runtime update.

    If the device implements support for the Android Virtualization Framework APIs, then for Key Management:

    • [C-6-1] MUST root DICE chain at a point that the user cannot modify, even on unlocked devices. (To ensure it cannot be spoofed).
    • [C-6-2] MUST do DICE properly i.e. provide the correct values. But it might not have to go to that level of detail.

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