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Định nghĩa tương thích Android 4.3

Sửa đổi 1
Cập nhật lần cuối: ngày 23 tháng 7 năm 2013

Bản quyền © 2013, Google Inc. Mọi quyền được bảo lưu.
Tương thích@android.com

Mục lục

1. Giới thiệu
2. Tài nguyên
3. Phần mềm
3.1. Khả năng tương thích API được quản lý
3.2. Khả năng tương thích API mềm
3.3. Khả năng tương thích API gốc
3.4. Tương thích web
3.5. Khả năng tương thích hành vi API
3.6. Không gian API
3.7. Khả năng tương thích máy ảo
3.8. Tương thích giao diện người dùng
3.9 Quản trị thiết bị
3.10 Khả năng tiếp cận
3.11 Chuyển văn bản thành giọng nói
4. Tương thích bao bì ứng dụng
5. Tương thích đa phương tiện
6. Công cụ dành cho nhà phát triển và Tùy chọn tương thích
7. Tương thích phần cứng
7.1. Hiển thị và đồ họa
7.2. Thiết bị đầu vào
7.3. Cảm biến
7.4. Kết nối dữ liệu
7.5. Máy ảnh
7.6. Bộ nhớ và lưu trữ
7.7. USB
8. Tương thích hiệu suất
9. Tương thích mô hình bảo mật
10. Kiểm thử tương thích phần mềm
11. Phần mềm cập nhật
12. Liên hệ với chúng tôi

1. Giới thiệu

Tài liệu này liệt kê các yêu cầu phải đáp ứng để các thiết bị tương thích với Android 4.3.

Việc sử dụng "phải", "không được", "bắt buộc", "sẽ", "sẽ không", "nên", "không nên", "được đề xuất", "có thể" và "tùy chọn" theo tiêu chuẩn IETF được định nghĩa trong RFC2119 [ Tài nguyên, 1 ].

Như được sử dụng trong tài liệu này, "người triển khai thiết bị" hoặc "người triển khai" là người hoặc tổ chức đang phát triển giải pháp phần cứng / phần mềm chạy Android 4.3. "Triển khai thiết bị" hoặc "triển khai" là giải pháp phần cứng / phần mềm được phát triển.

Để được coi là tương thích với Android 4.3, việc triển khai thiết bị PHẢI đáp ứng các yêu cầu được trình bày trong Định nghĩa tương thích này, bao gồm mọi tài liệu được kết hợp thông qua tham chiếu.

Trong trường hợp định nghĩa này hoặc các kiểm tra phần mềm được mô tả trong Phần 10 là im lặng, mơ hồ hoặc không đầy đủ, thì người thực hiện thiết bị phải có trách nhiệm đảm bảo khả năng tương thích với các triển khai hiện có.

Vì lý do này, Dự án mã nguồn mở Android [ Tài nguyên, 3 ] vừa là tài liệu tham khảo và triển khai ưa thích của Android. Những người triển khai thiết bị được khuyến khích mạnh mẽ dựa trên cơ sở triển khai của họ ở mức độ lớn nhất có thể dựa trên mã nguồn "ngược dòng" có sẵn từ Dự án mã nguồn mở Android. Mặc dù một số thành phần có thể được thay thế theo giả thuyết bằng các triển khai thay thế, thực tế này không được khuyến khích, vì việc vượt qua các bài kiểm tra phần mềm sẽ trở nên khó khăn hơn nhiều. Trách nhiệm của người triển khai là đảm bảo khả năng tương thích hành vi đầy đủ với việc triển khai Android tiêu chuẩn, bao gồm và ngoài Bộ kiểm tra tương thích. Cuối cùng, lưu ý rằng sự thay thế và sửa đổi thành phần nhất định bị cấm rõ ràng bởi tài liệu này.

2. Tài nguyên

  1. Các cấp độ yêu cầu của IETF RFC2119: http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt
  2. Tổng quan về chương trình tương thích Android: http://source.android.com/compabilities/index.html
  3. Dự án mã nguồn mở Android: http://source.android.com/
  4. Định nghĩa và tài liệu API: http://developer.android.com/reference/packages.html
  5. Tham chiếu Quyền của Android: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/Manifestÿ.html
  6. tài liệu tham khảo android.os.Build: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/os/Build.html
  7. Android 4.3 chuỗi phiên bản được phép: http://source.android.com/compabilities/4.3/versions.html
  8. Rendercript: http://developer.android.com/guide/topics/graphics/renderscript.html
  9. Tăng tốc phần cứng: http://developer.android.com/guide/topics/graphics/hardware-accel.html
  10. lớp android.webkit.WebView: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/webkit/WebView.html
  11. HTML5: http://www.whatwg.org/specs/web-apps/civerse-work/multipage/
  12. Khả năng ngoại tuyến của HTML5: http://dev.w3.org/html5/spec/Overview.html#offline
  13. Thẻ video HTML5: http://dev.w3.org/html5/spec/Overview.html#video
  14. API định vị địa lý HTML5 / W3C: http://www.w3.org/TR/geolocation-API/
  15. API cơ sở dữ liệu web HTML5 / W3C: http://www.w3.org/TR/webdatabase/
  16. API HTML5 / W3C được lập chỉ mục: http://www.w3.org/TR/IndexedDB/
  17. Thông số kỹ thuật của Máy ảo Dalvik: có sẵn trong mã nguồn Android, tại dalvik / docs
  18. AppWidgets: http://developer.android.com/guide/practices/ui_guferences/widget_design.html
  19. Thông báo: http://developer.android.com/guide/topics/ui/notifier/notifying.html
  20. Tài nguyên ứng dụng: http://code.google.com.vn/android/reference/av Available- resource.html
  21. Hướng dẫn kiểu biểu tượng Thanh trạng thái: http://developer.android.com/guide/practices/ui_guferences/icon_design_status_bar.html
  22. Trình quản lý tìm kiếm: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/app/SearchManager.html
  23. Bánh mì nướng: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/widget/Toast.html
  24. Chủ đề: http://developer.android.com/guide/topics/ui/theme.html
  25. Lớp R.style: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/R.style.html
  26. Hình nền sống: http://developer.android.com/resource/articles/live-wallersky.html
  27. Quản trị thiết bị Android: http://developer.android.com/guide/topics/admin/device-admin.html
  28. Tham chiếu DevicePolicyManager: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/app/admin/DevicePolicyManager.html
  29. API dịch vụ trợ năng của Android: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/accessibilityservice/package-summary.html
  30. API khả năng truy cập Android: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/view/accessibility/package-summary.html
  31. Dự án Eyes Free: http://code.google.com.vn/p/eyes-free
  32. API chuyển văn bản thành giọng nói: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/speech/tts/package-summary.html
  33. Tài liệu công cụ tham khảo (cho adb, aapt, ddms, systrace): http://developer.android.com/guide/developing/tools/index.html
  34. Mô tả tệp apk Android: http://developer.android.com/guide/topics/fundamentals.html
  35. Tệp kê khai: http://developer.android.com/guide/topics/manifest/manifest-intro.html
  36. Công cụ kiểm tra khỉ: http://developer.android.com/guide/developing/tools/monkey.html
  37. Android android.content.pm.PackageManager và Danh sách các tính năng phần cứng: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/content/pm/PackageManager.html
  38. Hỗ trợ nhiều màn hình: http://developer.android.com/guide/practices/sc Greens_support.html
  39. android.util.DisplayMetrics: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/util/DisplayMetrics.html
  40. android.content.res.Configuration: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/content/res/Configuration.html
  41. android.hardware.SensorEvent: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/hardware/SensorEvent.html
  42. API Bluetooth: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/bluetooth/package-summary.html
  43. Giao thức đẩy NDEF: http://source.android.com/compabilities/ndef-push-protatio.pdf
  44. MIFARE MF1S503X: http://www.nxp.com/document/data_sheet/MF1S503x.pdf
  45. MIFARE MF1S703X: http://www.nxp.com/document/data_sheet/MF1S703x.pdf
  46. MIFARE MF0ICU1: http://www.nxp.com/document/data_sheet/MF0ICU1.pdf
  47. MIFARE MF0ICU2: http://www.nxp.com/document/short_data_sheet/MF0ICU2_SDS.pdf
  48. MIFARE AN130511: http://www.nxp.com/document/application_note/AN130511.pdf
  49. MIFARE AN130411: http://www.nxp.com/document/application_note/AN130411.pdf
  50. API định hướng máy ảnh: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/hardware/Camera.html#setDisplayOrientation(int)
  51. Máy ảnh: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/hardware/Camera.html
  52. Phụ kiện mở Android: http://developer.android.com/guide/topics/usb/accessory.html
  53. API máy chủ USB: http://developer.android.com/guide/topics/usb/host.html
  54. Tham chiếu quyền và bảo mật của Android: http://developer.android.com/guide/topics/security/security.html
  55. Ứng dụng dành cho Android: http://code.google.com.vn/p/apps-for-android
  56. Trình tải xuống Android: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/app/DoadManager.html
  57. Truyền tệp Android: http://www.android.com/filetransfer
  58. Định dạng phương tiện truyền thông Android: http://developer.android.com/guide/appcill/media-formats.html
  59. Giao thức dự thảo phát trực tiếp HTTP: http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-pantos-http-live-streaming-03
  60. Bàn giao kết nối NFC: http://www.nfc-forum.org/specs/spec_list/#conn_handover
  61. Ghép nối đơn giản bảo mật Bluetooth bằng NFC: http://www.nfc-forum.org/resource/AppDocs/NFCForum_AD_BTSSP_1_0.pdf
  62. API Multicast Wifi: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/net/wifi/WifiManager.MulticastLock.html
  63. Hỗ trợ hành động: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/content/Intent.html#ACTION_ASSIST
  64. Đặc điểm kỹ thuật sạc USB: http://www.usb.org/developers/devclass_docs/USB_Battery_Charging_1.2.pdf
  65. Tia Android: http://developer.android.com/guide/topics/nfc/nfc.html
  66. Âm thanh USB Android: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/hardware/usb/UsbConstants.html#USB_CLASS_AUDIO
  67. Cài đặt chia sẻ NFC của Android: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/provider/Sinstall.html#ACTION_NFCSHARING_SETTINGS
  68. Wifi trực tiếp (Wifi P2P): http://developer.android.com/reference/android/net/wifi/p2p/WifiP2pManager.html
  69. Tiện ích khóa và màn hình chính: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/appwidget/AppWidgetProviderInfo.html
  70. Tham chiếu người dùng: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/os/UserManager.html
  71. Tham chiếu bộ nhớ ngoài: http://source.android.com/tech/st Storage
  72. API lưu trữ ngoài: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/os/En Môi.html
  73. Mã ngắn SMS: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Short_code
  74. Máy khách điều khiển từ xa đa phương tiện: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/media/RemoteControlClient.html
  75. Trình quản lý hiển thị: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/hardware/display/DisplayManager.html
  76. Ước mơ: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/service/dreams/DreamService.html
  77. Cài đặt liên quan đến phát triển ứng dụng Android: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/provider/Sinstall.html#ACTION_APPLICATION_DEVELOPMENT_SettING
  78. Máy ảnh: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/hardware/Camera.Parameter.html
  79. Tiện ích mở rộng EGL-EGL_ANDROID_RECORDABLE: http://www.khronos.org/registry/egl/extensions/ANDROID/EGL_ANDROID_recordable.txt
  80. API sự kiện chuyển động: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/view/MotionEvent.html
  81. Chạm vào Cấu hình nhập: http://source.android.com/devices/tech/input/touch-devices.html

Nhiều tài nguyên trong số này được lấy trực tiếp hoặc gián tiếp từ SDK Android 4.3 và sẽ có chức năng giống hệt với thông tin trong tài liệu của SDK đó. Trong mọi trường hợp trong đó Định nghĩa tương thích hoặc Bộ kiểm tra tương thích không đồng ý với tài liệu SDK, tài liệu SDK được coi là có thẩm quyền. Bất kỳ chi tiết kỹ thuật nào được cung cấp trong các tài liệu tham khảo bao gồm ở trên đều được coi là bao gồm một phần của Định nghĩa tương thích này.

3. Phần mềm

3.1. Khả năng tương thích API được quản lý

Môi trường thực thi được quản lý (dựa trên Dalvik) là phương tiện chính cho các ứng dụng Android. Giao diện lập trình ứng dụng Android (API) là tập hợp các giao diện nền tảng Android tiếp xúc với các ứng dụng chạy trong môi trường VM được quản lý. Việc triển khai thiết bị PHẢI cung cấp các triển khai hoàn chỉnh, bao gồm tất cả các hành vi được ghi lại, của bất kỳ API tài liệu nào được trình bày bởi SDK Android 4.3 [ Tài nguyên, 4 ].

Việc triển khai thiết bị KHÔNG PHẢI bỏ qua bất kỳ API được quản lý nào, thay đổi giao diện hoặc chữ ký API, đi chệch khỏi hành vi được ghi lại hoặc bao gồm các lệnh không hoạt động, trừ khi được Định nghĩa tương thích này cho phép cụ thể.

Định nghĩa tương thích này cho phép một số loại phần cứng mà Android bao gồm các API bị bỏ qua khi triển khai thiết bị. Trong những trường hợp như vậy, các API PHẢI vẫn có mặt và hành xử một cách hợp lý. Xem Phần 7 để biết các yêu cầu cụ thể cho kịch bản này.

3.2. Khả năng tương thích API mềm

Ngoài các API được quản lý từ Phần 3.1, Android cũng bao gồm API "mềm" chỉ có thời gian chạy đáng kể, dưới dạng những thứ như Ý định, quyền và các khía cạnh tương tự của các ứng dụng Android không thể thực thi trong thời gian biên dịch ứng dụng.

3.2.1. Quyền

Người triển khai thiết bị PHẢI hỗ trợ và thực thi tất cả các hằng số cho phép theo tài liệu của trang tham chiếu Cấp phép [ Tài nguyên, 5 ]. Lưu ý rằng Phần 9 liệt kê các yêu cầu bổ sung liên quan đến mô hình bảo mật Android.

3.2.2. Xây dựng tham số

Các API Android bao gồm một số hằng số trên lớp android.os.Build [ Tài nguyên, 6 ] nhằm mô tả thiết bị hiện tại. Để cung cấp các giá trị nhất quán, có ý nghĩa trong quá trình triển khai thiết bị, bảng bên dưới bao gồm các hạn chế bổ sung về định dạng của các giá trị này mà việc triển khai thiết bị PHẢI tuân thủ.

Tham số Bình luận
android.os.Build.VERSION.RELEASE Phiên bản của hệ thống Android hiện đang thực thi, ở định dạng có thể đọc được. Trường này PHẢI có một trong các giá trị chuỗi được xác định trong [ Tài nguyên, 7 ].
android.os.Build.VERSION.SDK Phiên bản của hệ thống Android hiện đang thực thi, ở định dạng có thể truy cập được bằng mã ứng dụng của bên thứ ba. Đối với Android 4.3, trường này PHẢI có giá trị nguyên 18.
android.os.Build.VERSION.SDK_INT Phiên bản của hệ thống Android hiện đang thực thi, ở định dạng có thể truy cập được bằng mã ứng dụng của bên thứ ba. Đối với Android 4.3, trường này PHẢI có giá trị nguyên 18.
android.os.Build.VERSION.INCREMENTAL Giá trị được chọn bởi người triển khai thiết bị chỉ định bản dựng cụ thể của hệ thống Android hiện đang thực thi, ở định dạng có thể đọc được. Giá trị này KHÔNG được sử dụng lại cho các bản dựng khác nhau dành cho người dùng cuối. Một cách sử dụng điển hình của trường này là để chỉ ra số nhận dạng thay đổi kiểm soát nguồn hoặc số bản dựng nào đã được sử dụng để tạo bản dựng. Không có yêu cầu về định dạng cụ thể của trường này, ngoại trừ việc nó KHÔNG PHẢI là null hoặc chuỗi rỗng ("").
android.os.Build.BOARD Giá trị được chọn bởi người triển khai thiết bị xác định phần cứng bên trong cụ thể được sử dụng bởi thiết bị, ở định dạng có thể đọc được. Một cách sử dụng có thể của trường này là để chỉ ra sự sửa đổi cụ thể của bo mạch cấp nguồn cho thiết bị. Giá trị của trường này PHẢI được mã hóa dưới dạng ASCII 7 bit và khớp với biểu thức chính quy "^[a-zA-Z0-9.,_-]+$" .
android.os.Build.BRAND Một giá trị được lựa chọn bởi người triển khai thiết bị xác định tên của công ty, tổ chức, cá nhân, v.v., người đã sản xuất thiết bị, ở định dạng có thể đọc được. Một cách sử dụng có thể của trường này là để chỉ ra OEM và / hoặc nhà cung cấp đã bán thiết bị. Giá trị của trường này PHẢI được mã hóa dưới dạng ASCII 7 bit và khớp với biểu thức chính quy "^[a-zA-Z0-9.,_-]+$" .
android.os.Build.CPU_ABI Tên của tập lệnh (loại CPU + quy ước ABI) của mã gốc. Xem Phần 3.3: Khả năng tương thích API gốc .
android.os.Build.CPU_ABI2 Tên của tập lệnh thứ hai (loại CPU + quy ước ABI) của mã gốc. Xem Phần 3.3: Khả năng tương thích API gốc .
android.os.Build.DEVICE Giá trị được chọn bởi người triển khai thiết bị xác định cấu hình hoặc sửa đổi cụ thể của thân máy (đôi khi được gọi là "kiểu dáng công nghiệp") của thiết bị. Giá trị của trường này PHẢI được mã hóa dưới dạng ASCII 7 bit và khớp với biểu thức chính quy "^[a-zA-Z0-9.,_-]+$" .
android.os.Build.FINGERPRINT Một chuỗi xác định duy nhất bản dựng này. Nó NÊN có thể đọc được một cách hợp lý. Nó PHẢI làm theo mẫu này:
$(BRAND)/$(PRODUCT)/$(DEVICE):$(VERSION.RELEASE)/$(ID)/$(VERSION.INCREMENTAL):$(TYPE)/$(TAGS)
Ví dụ:
acme/mydevice/generic:4.3/JRN53/3359:userdebug/test-keys
Dấu vân tay KHÔNG PHẢI bao gồm các ký tự khoảng trắng. Nếu các trường khác có trong mẫu ở trên có các ký tự khoảng trắng, chúng PHẢI được thay thế trong dấu vân tay bản dựng bằng một ký tự khác, chẳng hạn như ký tự gạch dưới ("_"). Giá trị của trường này PHẢI được mã hóa dưới dạng ASCII 7 bit.
android.os.Build. PHẦN MỀM Tên của phần cứng (từ dòng lệnh kernel hoặc / Proc). Nó NÊN có thể đọc được một cách hợp lý. Giá trị của trường này PHẢI được mã hóa dưới dạng ASCII 7 bit và khớp với biểu thức chính quy "^[a-zA-Z0-9.,_-]+$" .
android.os.Build.HOST Một chuỗi xác định duy nhất máy chủ lưu trữ được xây dựng trên, ở định dạng có thể đọc được. Không có yêu cầu về định dạng cụ thể của trường này, ngoại trừ việc nó KHÔNG PHẢI là null hoặc chuỗi rỗng ("").
android.os.Build.ID Một mã định danh được chọn bởi người triển khai thiết bị để chỉ một bản phát hành cụ thể, ở định dạng có thể đọc được. Trường này có thể giống như android.os.Build.VERSION.INCREMENTAL, nhưng NÊN là một giá trị đủ ý nghĩa để người dùng cuối phân biệt giữa các bản dựng phần mềm. Giá trị của trường này PHẢI được mã hóa dưới dạng ASCII 7 bit và khớp với biểu thức chính quy "^[a-zA-Z0-9.,_-]+$" .
android.os.Build.MANUFACTURER Tên thương mại của Nhà sản xuất Thiết bị gốc (OEM) của sản phẩm. Không có yêu cầu về định dạng cụ thể của trường này, ngoại trừ việc nó KHÔNG PHẢI là null hoặc chuỗi rỗng ("").
android.os.Build.MODEL Giá trị được chọn bởi người triển khai thiết bị có chứa tên của thiết bị mà người dùng cuối đã biết. Điều này NÊN cùng tên với thiết bị được bán và bán cho người dùng cuối. Không có yêu cầu về định dạng cụ thể của trường này, ngoại trừ việc nó KHÔNG PHẢI là null hoặc chuỗi rỗng ("").
android.os.Build.PRODVEL Giá trị được chọn bởi người triển khai thiết bị có chứa tên phát triển hoặc tên mã của sản phẩm (SKU). PHẢI có thể đọc được bằng con người, nhưng không nhất thiết phải dành cho người dùng cuối xem. Giá trị của trường này PHẢI được mã hóa dưới dạng ASCII 7 bit và khớp với biểu thức chính quy "^[a-zA-Z0-9.,_-]+$" .
android.os.Build.SERIAL Số sê-ri phần cứng, nếu có. Giá trị của trường này PHẢI được mã hóa dưới dạng ASCII 7 bit và khớp với biểu thức chính quy "^([a-zA-Z0-9]{0,20})$" .
android.os.Build.TAGS Danh sách các thẻ được phân tách bằng dấu phẩy được chọn bởi người triển khai thiết bị để phân biệt rõ hơn bản dựng. Ví dụ: "không dấu, gỡ lỗi". Giá trị của trường này PHẢI được mã hóa dưới dạng ASCII 7 bit và khớp với biểu thức chính quy "^[a-zA-Z0-9.,_-]+$" .
android.os.Build.TIME Một giá trị đại diện cho dấu thời gian khi việc xây dựng xảy ra.
android.os.Build.TYPE Giá trị được chọn bởi người triển khai thiết bị chỉ định cấu hình thời gian chạy của bản dựng. Trường này NÊN có một trong các giá trị tương ứng với ba cấu hình thời gian chạy Android điển hình: "user", "userdebug" hoặc "eng". Giá trị của trường này PHẢI được mã hóa dưới dạng ASCII 7 bit và khớp với biểu thức chính quy "^[a-zA-Z0-9.,_-]+$" .
android.os.Build.USER Tên hoặc ID người dùng của người dùng (hoặc người dùng tự động) đã tạo bản dựng. Không có yêu cầu về định dạng cụ thể của trường này, ngoại trừ việc nó KHÔNG PHẢI là null hoặc chuỗi rỗng ("").

3.2.3. Tương thích ý định

Việc triển khai thiết bị PHẢI tôn vinh hệ thống Intent khớp nối lỏng lẻo của Android, như được mô tả trong các phần bên dưới. Bằng cách "vinh danh", điều đó có nghĩa là người triển khai thiết bị PHẢI cung cấp Hoạt động hoặc Dịch vụ Android chỉ định bộ lọc Ý định phù hợp và liên kết và thực hiện hành vi chính xác cho từng mẫu Ý định được chỉ định.

3.2.3.1. Ý định ứng dụng cốt lõi

Dự án ngược dòng Android xác định một số ứng dụng cốt lõi, chẳng hạn như danh bạ, lịch, thư viện ảnh, trình phát nhạc, v.v. Người triển khai thiết bị CÓ THỂ thay thế các ứng dụng này bằng các phiên bản thay thế.

Tuy nhiên, bất kỳ phiên bản thay thế nào như vậy PHẢI tôn vinh các mẫu Ý định tương tự được cung cấp bởi dự án ngược dòng. Ví dụ: nếu một thiết bị chứa trình phát nhạc thay thế, thiết bị vẫn phải tôn trọng mẫu Ý định do ứng dụng của bên thứ ba phát hành để chọn bài hát.

Các ứng dụng sau được coi là ứng dụng hệ thống Android cốt lõi:

  • Đồng hồ để bàn
  • Trình duyệt
  • Lịch
  • Liên lạc
  • Bộ sưu tập
  • Tìm kiếm toàn cầu
  • Trình khởi chạy
  • Âm nhạc
  • Cài đặt

Các ứng dụng hệ thống Android cốt lõi bao gồm các thành phần Hoạt động hoặc Dịch vụ khác nhau được coi là "công khai". Đó là, thuộc tính "android: export" có thể vắng mặt hoặc có thể có giá trị "true".

Đối với mọi Hoạt động hoặc Dịch vụ được xác định trong một trong các ứng dụng hệ thống Android cốt lõi không được đánh dấu là không công khai thông qua Android: thuộc tính được xuất với giá trị "sai", việc triển khai thiết bị PHẢI bao gồm một thành phần cùng loại thực hiện cùng bộ lọc Ý định các mẫu như ứng dụng hệ thống cốt lõi của Android.

Nói cách khác, việc triển khai thiết bị CÓ THỂ thay thế các ứng dụng hệ thống Android cốt lõi; tuy nhiên, nếu có, việc triển khai thiết bị PHẢI hỗ trợ tất cả các mẫu Ý định được xác định bởi mỗi ứng dụng hệ thống Android cốt lõi sẽ được thay thế.

3.2.3.2. Ghi đè ý định

Vì Android là một nền tảng mở rộng, việc triển khai thiết bị PHẢI cho phép mỗi mẫu Ý định được tham chiếu trong Mục 3.2.3.2 bị ghi đè bởi các ứng dụng của bên thứ ba. Việc triển khai mã nguồn mở Android ngược dòng cho phép điều này theo mặc định; người triển khai thiết bị KHÔNG PHẢI đính kèm các đặc quyền đặc biệt cho việc sử dụng các mẫu Ý định này của ứng dụng hệ thống hoặc ngăn các ứng dụng của bên thứ ba liên kết và giả định quyền kiểm soát các mẫu này. Lệnh cấm này đặc biệt bao gồm nhưng không giới hạn trong việc vô hiệu hóa giao diện người dùng "Trình chọn" cho phép người dùng chọn giữa nhiều ứng dụng mà tất cả đều xử lý cùng một mẫu Ý định.

Tuy nhiên, việc triển khai thiết bị CÓ THỂ cung cấp các hoạt động mặc định cho các mẫu URI cụ thể (ví dụ: http://play.google.com) nếu hoạt động mặc định cung cấp bộ lọc cụ thể hơn cho URI dữ liệu. Ví dụ: bộ lọc ý định chỉ định URI dữ liệu "http://www.android.com" cụ thể hơn bộ lọc trình duyệt cho "http: //". Việc triển khai thiết bị PHẢI cung cấp giao diện người dùng để người dùng sửa đổi hoạt động mặc định cho ý định.

3.2.3.3. Không gian tên dự định

Việc triển khai thiết bị KHÔNG PHẢI bao gồm bất kỳ thành phần Android nào tôn vinh bất kỳ mẫu Intent hoặc Broadcast Intent mới nào bằng cách sử dụng ACTION, CATEGORY hoặc chuỗi khóa khác trong không gian tên android. * Hoặc com.android. *. Người triển khai thiết bị KHÔNG PHẢI bao gồm bất kỳ thành phần Android nào tôn vinh bất kỳ mẫu Intent hoặc Broadcast Intent mới nào bằng cách sử dụng ACTION, CATEGORY hoặc chuỗi khóa khác trong không gian gói thuộc về một tổ chức khác. Người triển khai thiết bị KHÔNG PHẢI thay đổi hoặc mở rộng bất kỳ mẫu Ý định nào được sử dụng bởi các ứng dụng cốt lõi được liệt kê trong Mục 3.2.3.1. Việc triển khai thiết bị CÓ THỂ bao gồm các mẫu Ý định sử dụng không gian tên rõ ràng và rõ ràng được liên kết với tổ chức của riêng họ.

Lệnh cấm này tương tự như lệnh cấm được chỉ định cho các lớp ngôn ngữ Java trong Phần 3.6.

3.2.3.4. Ý định phát sóng

Các ứng dụng của bên thứ ba dựa trên nền tảng để phát một số Ý định nhất định để thông báo cho họ về những thay đổi trong môi trường phần cứng hoặc phần mềm. Các thiết bị tương thích với Android PHẢI phát các Ý định phát sóng công cộng để đáp ứng với các sự kiện hệ thống phù hợp. Ý định phát sóng được mô tả trong tài liệu SDK.

3.3. Khả năng tương thích API gốc

3.3.1 Giao diện nhị phân ứng dụng

Mã được quản lý chạy trong Dalvik có thể gọi vào mã gốc được cung cấp trong tệp .apk dưới dạng tệp ELF .so được biên dịch cho kiến ​​trúc phần cứng thiết bị phù hợp. Vì mã gốc phụ thuộc nhiều vào công nghệ bộ xử lý cơ bản, Android định nghĩa một số Giao diện nhị phân ứng dụng (ABIs) trong NDK của Android, trong tệp docs/CPU-ARCH-ABIS.html . Nếu việc triển khai thiết bị tương thích với một hoặc nhiều ABI được xác định, thì NÊN thực hiện khả năng tương thích với NDK của Android, như dưới đây.

Nếu triển khai thiết bị bao gồm hỗ trợ cho ABI Android, thì:

  • PHẢI bao gồm hỗ trợ cho mã chạy trong môi trường được quản lý để gọi vào mã gốc, sử dụng ngữ nghĩa của Giao diện gốc Java (JNI) tiêu chuẩn
  • PHẢI tương thích nguồn (tương thích tiêu đề) và tương thích nhị phân (đối với ABI) với mỗi thư viện bắt buộc trong danh sách bên dưới
  • PHẢI báo cáo chính xác Giao diện nhị phân ứng dụng gốc (ABI) được thiết bị hỗ trợ, thông qua API android.os.Build.CPU_ABI
  • PHẢI chỉ báo cáo những ABI được ghi lại trong phiên bản Android NDK mới nhất, trong tệp docs/CPU-ARCH-ABIS.txt
  • NÊN được xây dựng bằng cách sử dụng mã nguồn và các tệp tiêu đề có sẵn trong Dự án mã nguồn mở Android ngược dòng

Các API mã gốc sau PHẢI có sẵn cho các ứng dụng bao gồm mã gốc:

  • libc (thư viện C)
  • libm (thư viện toán học)
  • Hỗ trợ tối thiểu cho C ++
  • Giao diện JNI
  • liblog (đăng nhập Android)
  • libz (nén Zlib)
  • libdl (liên kết động)
  • libGLESv1_CM.so (OpenGL ES 1.0)
  • libGLESv2.so (OpenGL ES 2.0)
  • libGLESv3.so (OpenGL ES 3.0)
  • libEGL.so (quản lý bề mặt OpenGL gốc)
  • libjniclesics.so
  • libOpenSLES.so (Hỗ trợ âm thanh OpenSL ES 1.0.1)
  • libOpenMAXAL.so (hỗ trợ OpenMAX AL 1.0.1)
  • libandroid.so (hỗ trợ hoạt động Android gốc)
  • Hỗ trợ OpenGL, như được mô tả dưới đây

Lưu ý rằng các bản phát hành Android NDK trong tương lai có thể giới thiệu hỗ trợ cho các ABI bổ sung. Nếu việc triển khai thiết bị không tương thích với ABI được xác định trước, thì KHÔNG PHẢI báo cáo hỗ trợ cho bất kỳ ABI nào.

Lưu ý rằng việc triển khai thiết bị PHẢI bao gồm libGLESv3.so và nó PHẢI liên kết symlink (tượng trưng) đến libGLESv2.so. Trên các cài đặt thiết bị khai báo hỗ trợ cho OpenGL ES 3.0, libGLESv2.so PHẢI xuất các ký hiệu chức năng OpenGL ES 3.0 bên cạnh các ký hiệu chức năng OpenGL ES 2.0.

Khả năng tương thích mã gốc là một thách thức. Vì lý do này, cần nhắc lại rằng những người triển khai thiết bị RẤT được khuyến khích sử dụng các triển khai ngược dòng của các thư viện được liệt kê ở trên để giúp đảm bảo tính tương thích.

3.4. Tương thích web

3.4.1. Khả năng tương thích WebView

Việc triển khai Nguồn mở Android sử dụng công cụ kết xuất WebKit để triển khai android.webkit.WebView [ Tài nguyên, 10 ]. Do không thể phát triển bộ kiểm tra toàn diện cho hệ thống kết xuất web, nên người triển khai thiết bị PHẢI sử dụng bản dựng WebKit ngược dòng cụ thể trong triển khai WebView. Đặc biệt:

  • Việc triển khai thiết bị android.webkit.WebView của triển khai thiết bị PHẢI dựa trên bản dựng WebKit 534.30 từ cây Nguồn mở Android ngược dòng cho Android 4.3. Bản dựng này bao gồm một bộ sửa lỗi chức năng và bảo mật cụ thể cho WebView. Người triển khai thiết bị CÓ THỂ bao gồm các tùy chỉnh để triển khai WebKit; tuy nhiên, mọi tùy chỉnh như vậy KHÔNG PHẢI làm thay đổi hành vi của WebView, bao gồm cả hành vi kết xuất.
  • Chuỗi tác nhân người dùng được báo cáo bởi WebView PHẢI ở định dạng này:
    Mozilla/5.0 (Linux; U; Android $(VERSION); $(LOCALE); $(MODEL) Build/$(BUILD)) AppleWebKit/534.30 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/4.0 Mobile Safari/534.30
    • Giá trị của chuỗi $ (VERSION) PHẢI giống với giá trị cho android.os.Build.VERSION.RELEASE
    • Giá trị của chuỗi $ (LOCALE) NÊN tuân theo các quy ước ISO cho mã quốc gia và ngôn ngữ và NÊN tham khảo ngôn ngữ được định cấu hình hiện tại của thiết bị
    • Giá trị của chuỗi $ (MODEL) PHẢI giống với giá trị cho android.os.Build.MODEL
    • Giá trị của chuỗi $ (BUILD) PHẢI giống với giá trị cho android.os.Build.ID
    • Triển khai thiết bị CÓ THỂ bỏ qua Mobile trong chuỗi tác nhân người dùng

Thành phần WebView NÊN bao gồm hỗ trợ cho càng nhiều HTML5 [ Tài nguyên, 11 ] càng tốt. Tối thiểu, việc triển khai thiết bị PHẢI hỗ trợ từng API này được liên kết với HTML5 trong WebView:

Ngoài ra, việc triển khai thiết bị PHẢI hỗ trợ API lưu trữ web HTML5 / W3C [ Tài nguyên, 15 ] và NÊN hỗ trợ API HTML5 / W3C IndexedDB [ Tài nguyên, 16 ]. Lưu ý rằng khi các cơ quan tiêu chuẩn phát triển web đang chuyển đổi để ưu tiên IndexedDB hơn lưu trữ web, IndexedDB dự kiến ​​sẽ trở thành một thành phần bắt buộc trong phiên bản Android trong tương lai.

API HTML5, giống như tất cả các API JavaScript, PHẢI được tắt theo mặc định trong WebView, trừ khi nhà phát triển cho phép chúng rõ ràng thông qua các API Android thông thường.

3.4.2. tính tương thích của trình duyệt web

Việc triển khai thiết bị PHẢI bao gồm một ứng dụng Trình duyệt độc lập để duyệt web chung của người dùng. Trình duyệt độc lập CÓ THỂ dựa trên công nghệ trình duyệt khác ngoài WebKit. Tuy nhiên, ngay cả khi một ứng dụng Trình duyệt thay thế được sử dụng, thành phần android.webkit.WebView được cung cấp cho các ứng dụng của bên thứ ba PHẢI dựa trên WebKit, như được mô tả trong Phần 3.4.1.

Việc triển khai CÓ THỂ gửi một chuỗi tác nhân người dùng tùy chỉnh trong ứng dụng Trình duyệt độc lập.

Ứng dụng Trình duyệt độc lập (cho dù dựa trên ứng dụng Trình duyệt WebKit ngược dòng hoặc thay thế bên thứ ba) NÊN bao gồm hỗ trợ cho càng nhiều HTML5 [ Tài nguyên, 11 ] càng tốt. Tối thiểu, việc triển khai thiết bị PHẢI hỗ trợ từng API này được liên kết với HTML5:

Ngoài ra, việc triển khai thiết bị PHẢI hỗ trợ API lưu trữ web HTML5 / W3C [ Tài nguyên, 15 ] và NÊN hỗ trợ API HTML5 / W3C IndexedDB [ Tài nguyên, 16 ]. Lưu ý rằng khi các cơ quan tiêu chuẩn phát triển web đang chuyển đổi để ưu tiên IndexedDB hơn lưu trữ web, IndexedDB dự kiến ​​sẽ trở thành một thành phần bắt buộc trong phiên bản Android trong tương lai.

3.5. Khả năng tương thích hành vi API

Các hành vi của từng loại API (được quản lý, mềm, bản địa và web) phải phù hợp với triển khai ưa thích của Dự án nguồn mở Android thượng nguồn [ Tài nguyên, 3 ]. Một số lĩnh vực tương thích cụ thể là:

  • Thiết bị KHÔNG PHẢI thay đổi hành vi hoặc ngữ nghĩa của Ý định chuẩn
  • Các thiết bị KHÔNG PHẢI thay đổi ngữ nghĩa vòng đời hoặc vòng đời của một loại thành phần hệ thống cụ thể (như Dịch vụ, Hoạt động, ContentProvider, v.v.)
  • Các thiết bị KHÔNG PHẢI thay đổi ngữ nghĩa của sự cho phép tiêu chuẩn

Danh sách trên không đầy đủ. Bộ kiểm tra tương thích (CTS) kiểm tra các phần quan trọng của nền tảng để tương thích hành vi, nhưng không phải tất cả. Người triển khai có trách nhiệm đảm bảo khả năng tương thích hành vi với Dự án mã nguồn mở Android. For this reason, device implementers SHOULD use the source code available via the Android Open Source Project where possible, rather than re-implement significant parts of the system.

3.6. API Namespaces

Android follows the package and class namespace conventions defined by the Java programming language. To ensure compatibility with third-party applications, device implementers MUST NOT make any prohibited modifications (see below) to these package namespaces:

  • java.*
  • javax.*
  • sun.*
  • android.*
  • com.android.*

Prohibited modifications include:

  • Device implementations MUST NOT modify the publicly exposed APIs on the Android platform by changing any method or class signatures, or by removing classes or class fields.
  • Device implementers MAY modify the underlying implementation of the APIs, but such modifications MUST NOT impact the stated behavior and Java-language signature of any publicly exposed APIs.
  • Device implementers MUST NOT add any publicly exposed elements (such as classes or interfaces, or fields or methods to existing classes or interfaces) to the APIs above.

A "publicly exposed element" is any construct which is not decorated with the "@hide" marker as used in the upstream Android source code. In other words, device implementers MUST NOT expose new APIs or alter existing APIs in the namespaces noted above. Device implementers MAY make internal-only modifications, but those modifications MUST NOT be advertised or otherwise exposed to developers.

Device implementers MAY add custom APIs, but any such APIs MUST NOT be in a namespace owned by or referring to another organization. For instance, device implementers MUST NOT add APIs to the com.google.* or similar namespace; only Google may do so. Similarly, Google MUST NOT add APIs to other companies' namespaces. Additionally, if a device implementation includes custom APIs outside the standard Android namespace, those APIs MUST be packaged in an Android shared library so that only apps that explicitly use them (via the <uses-library> mechanism) are affected by the increased memory usage of such APIs.

If a device implementer proposes to improve one of the package namespaces above (such as by adding useful new functionality to an existing API, or adding a new API), the implementer SHOULD visit source.android.com and begin the process for contributing changes and code, according to the information on that site.

Note that the restrictions above correspond to standard conventions for naming APIs in the Java programming language; this section simply aims to reinforce those conventions and make them binding through inclusion in this compatibility definition.

3.7. Virtual Machine Compatibility

Device implementations MUST support the full Dalvik Executable (DEX) bytecode specification and Dalvik Virtual Machine semantics [ Resources, 17 ].

Device implementations MUST configure Dalvik to allocate memory in accordance with the upstream Android platform, and as specified by the following table. (See Section 7.1.1 for screen size and screen density definitions.)

Note that memory values specified below are considered minimum values, and device implementations MAY allocate more memory per application.

Screen Size Screen Density Application Memory
small / normal / large ldpi / mdpi 16MB
small / normal / large tvdpi / hdpi 32MB
small / normal / large xhdpi 64MB
xlarge mdpi 32MB
xlarge tvdpi / hdpi 64MB
xlarge xhdpi 128MB

3.8. User Interface Compatibility

3.8.1. Launcher (Home Screen)

Android 4.3 includes a launcher application (home screen) and support for third party applications to replace the device launcher (home screen). Device implementations that allow third party applications to replace the device home screen MUST declare the platform feature android.software.home_screen .

3.8.2. Widgets

Android defines a component type and corresponding API and lifecycle that allows applications to expose an "AppWidget" to the end user [ Resources, 18 ]. Device implementations that support embedding widgets on the home screen MUST meet the following requirements and declare support for platform feature android.software.app_widgets .

  • Device launchers MUST include built-in support for AppWidgets, and expose user interface affordances to add, configure, view, and remove AppWidgets directly within the Launcher.
  • Device implementations MUST be capable of rendering widgets that are 4 x 4 in the standard grid size. (See the App Widget Design Guidelines in the Android SDK documentation [ Resources, 18 ] for details.
  • Device implementations that include support for lock screen MUST support application widgets on the lock screen.

3.8.3. Notifications

Android includes APIs that allow developers to notify users of notable events [ Resources, 19 ], using hardware and software features of the device.

Some APIs allow applications to perform notifications or attract attention using hardware, specifically sound, vibration, and light. Device implementations MUST support notifications that use hardware features, as described in the SDK documentation, and to the extent possible with the device implementation hardware. For instance, if a device implementation includes a vibrator, it MUST correctly implement the vibration APIs. If a device implementation lacks hardware, the corresponding APIs MUST be implemented as no-ops. Note that this behavior is further detailed in Section 7.

Additionally, the implementation MUST correctly render all resources (icons, sound files, etc.) provided for in the APIs [ Resources, 20 ], or in the Status/System Bar icon style guide [ Resources, 21 ]. Device implementers MAY provide an alternative user experience for notifications than that provided by the reference Android Open Source implementation; however, such alternative notification systems MUST support existing notification resources, as above.

Android 4.3 includes support for rich notifications, such as interactive Views for ongoing notifications. Device implementations MUST properly display and execute rich notifications, as documented in the Android APIs.

Android includes APIs [ Resources, 22 ] that allow developers to incorporate search into their applications, and expose their application's data into the global system search. Generally speaking, this functionality consists of a single, system-wide user interface that allows users to enter queries, displays suggestions as users type, and displays results. The Android APIs allow developers to reuse this interface to provide search within their own apps, and allow developers to supply results to the common global search user interface.

Device implementations MUST include a single, shared, system-wide search user interface capable of real-time suggestions in response to user input. Device implementations MUST implement the APIs that allow developers to reuse this user interface to provide search within their own applications. Device implementations MUST implement the APIs that allow third-party applications to add suggestions to the search box when it is run in global search mode. If no third-party applications are installed that make use of this functionality, the default behavior SHOULD be to display web search engine results and suggestions.

3.8.5. Toasts

Applications can use the "Toast" API (defined in [ Resources, 23 ]) to display short non-modal strings to the end user, that disappear after a brief period of time. Device implementations MUST display Toasts from applications to end users in some high-visibility manner.

3.8.6. Themes

Android provides "themes" as a mechanism for applications to apply styles across an entire Activity or application. Android 4.3 includes a "Holo" or "holographic" theme as a set of defined styles for application developers to use if they want to match the Holo theme look and feel as defined by the Android SDK [ Resources, 24 ]. Device implementations MUST NOT alter any of the Holo theme attributes exposed to applications [ Resources, 25 ].

Android 4.3 includes a new "Device Default" theme as a set of defined styles for application developers to use if they want to match the look and feel of the device theme as defined by the device implementer. Device implementations MAY modify the DeviceDefault theme attributes exposed to applications [ Resources, 25 ].

3.8.7. Live Wallpapers

Android defines a component type and corresponding API and lifecycle that allows applications to expose one or more "Live Wallpapers" to the end user [ Resources, 26 ]. Live Wallpapers are animations, patterns, or similar images with limited input capabilities that display as a wallpaper, behind other applications.

Hardware is considered capable of reliably running live wallpapers if it can run all live wallpapers, with no limitations on functionality, at a reasonable framerate with no adverse affects on other applications. If limitations in the hardware cause wallpapers and/or applications to crash, malfunction, consume excessive CPU or battery power, or run at unacceptably low frame rates, the hardware is considered incapable of running live wallpaper. As an example, some live wallpapers may use an Open GL 1.0 or 2.0 context to render their content. Live wallpaper will not run reliably on hardware that does not support multiple OpenGL contexts because the live wallpaper use of an OpenGL context may conflict with other applications that also use an OpenGL context.

Device implementations capable of running live wallpapers reliably as described above SHOULD implement live wallpapers. Device implementations determined to not run live wallpapers reliably as described above MUST NOT implement live wallpapers.

3.8.8. Recent Application Display

The upstream Android 4.3 source code includes a user interface for displaying recent applications using a thumbnail image of the application's graphical state at the moment the user last left the application. Device implementations MAY alter or eliminate this user interface; however, a future version of Android is planned to make more extensive use of this functionality. Device implementations are strongly encouraged to use the upstream Android 4.3 user interface (or a similar thumbnail-based interface) for recent applications, or else they may not be compatible with a future version of Android.

3.8.9. Input Management

Android 4.3 includes support for Input Management and support for third party input method editors. Device implementations that allow users to use third party input methods on the device MUST declare the platform feature android.software.input_methods and support IME APIs as defined in the Android SDK documentation.

Device implementations that declare the android.software.input_methods feature MUST provide a user-accessible mechanism to add and configure third party input methods. Device implementations MUST display the settings interface in response to the android.settings.INPUT_METHOD_SETTINGS intent.

3.8.10. Lock Screen Media Remote Control

Android 4.3 includes support for Remote Control API that lets media applications integrate with playback controls that are displayed in a remote view like the device lock screen [ Resources, 74 ]. Device implementations that support lock screen in the device and allow users to add widgets on the home screen MUST include support for embedding remote controls in the device lock screen [ Resources, 69 ].

3.8.11. Dreams

Android 4.3 includes support for interactive screensavers called Dreams [ Resources, 76 ]. Dreams allows users to interact with applications when a charging device is idle, or docked in a desk dock. Device implementations MUST include support for Dreams and provide a settings option for users to configure Dreams.

3.9 Device Administration

Android 4.3 includes features that allow security-aware applications to perform device administration functions at the system level, such as enforcing password policies or performing remote wipe, through the Android Device Administration API [ Resources, 27 ]. Device implementations MUST provide an implementation of the DevicePolicyManager class [ Resources, 28 ]. Device implementations that include support for lock screen MUST support the full range of device administration policies defined in the Android SDK documentation [ Resources, 27 ].

3.10 Accessibility

Android 4.3 provides an accessibility layer that helps users with disabilities to navigate their devices more easily. In addition, Android 4.3 provides platform APIs that enable accessibility service implementations to receive callbacks for user and system events and generate alternate feedback mechanisms, such as text-to-speech, haptic feedback, and trackball/d-pad navigation [ Resources, 29 ]. Device implementations MUST provide an implementation of the Android accessibility framework consistent with the default Android implementation. Specifically, device implementations MUST meet the following requirements.

  • Device implementations MUST support third party accessibility service implementations through the android.accessibilityservice APIs [ Resources, 30 ].
  • Device implementations MUST generate AccessibilityEvents and deliver these events to all registered AccessibilityService implementations in a manner consistent with the default Android implementation.
  • Device implementations MUST provide a user-accessible mechanism to enable and disable accessibility services, and MUST display this interface in response to the android.provider.Settings.ACTION_ACCESSIBILITY_SETTINGS intent.

Additionally, device implementations SHOULD provide an implementation of an accessibility service on the device, and SHOULD provide a mechanism for users to enable the accessibility service during device setup. An open source implementation of an accessibility service is available from the Eyes Free project [ Resources, 31 ].

3.11 Text-to-Speech

Android 4.3 includes APIs that allow applications to make use of text-to-speech (TTS) services, and allows service providers to provide implementations of TTS services [ Resources, 32 ]. Device implementations MUST meet these requirements related to the Android TTS framework:

  • Device implementations MUST support the Android TTS framework APIs and SHOULD include a TTS engine supporting the languages available on the device. Note that the upstream Android open source software includes a full-featured TTS engine implementation.
  • Device implementations MUST support installation of third-party TTS engines.
  • Device implementations MUST provide a user-accessible interface that allows users to select a TTS engine for use at the system level.

4. Application Packaging Compatibility

Device implementations MUST install and run Android ".apk" files as generated by the "aapt" tool included in the official Android SDK [ Resources, 33 ].

Devices implementations MUST NOT extend either the .apk [ Resources, 34 ], Android Manifest [ Resources, 35 ], Dalvik bytecode [ Resources, 17 ], or renderscript bytecode formats in such a way that would prevent those files from installing and running correctly on other compatible devices. Device implementers SHOULD use the reference upstream implementation of Dalvik, and the reference implementation's package management system.

5. Multimedia Compatibility

Device implementations MUST include at least one form of audio output, such as speakers, headphone jack, external speaker connection, etc.

5.1. Media Codecs

Device implementations MUST support the core media formats specified in the Android SDK documentation [ Resources, 58 ] except where explicitly permitted in this document. Specifically, device implementations MUST support the media formats, encoders, decoders, file types and container formats defined in the tables below. All of these codecs are provided as software implementations in the preferred Android implementation from the Android Open Source Project.

Please note that neither Google nor the Open Handset Alliance make any representation that these codecs are unencumbered by third-party patents. Those intending to use this source code in hardware or software products are advised that implementations of this code, including in open source software or shareware, may require patent licenses from the relevant patent holders.

Note that these tables do not list specific bitrate requirements for most video codecs because current device hardware does not necessarily support bitrates that map exactly to the required bitrates specified by the relevant standards. Instead, device implementations SHOULD support the highest bitrate practical on the hardware, up to the limits defined by the specifications.

Type Format / Codec Encoder Decoder Details File Type(s) / Container Formats
Audio MPEG-4 AAC Profile (AAC LC) REQUIRED for device implementations that include microphone hardware and define android.hardware.microphone . REQUIRED Support for mono/stereo/5.0/5.1* content with standard sampling rates from 8 to 48 kHz.
  • 3GPP (.3gp)
  • MPEG-4 (.mp4, .m4a)
  • ADTS raw AAC (.aac, decode in Android 3.1+, encode in Android 4.0+, ADIF not supported)
  • MPEG-TS (.ts, not seekable, Android 3.0+)
MPEG-4 HE AAC Profile (AAC+) REQUIRED for device implementations that include microphone hardware and define android.hardware.microphone REQUIRED Support for mono/stereo/5.0/5.1* content with standard sampling rates from 16 to 48 kHz.
MPEG-4 HE AAC v2 Profile (enhanced AAC+) REQUIRED Support for mono/stereo/5.0/5.1* content with standard sampling rates from 16 to 48 kHz.
MPEG-4 Audio Object Type ER AAC ELD (Enhanced Low Delay AAC) REQUIRED for device implementations that include microphone hardware and define android.hardware.microphone REQUIRED Support for mono/stereo content with standard sampling rates from 16 to 48 kHz.
AMR-NB REQUIRED for device implementations that include microphone hardware and define android.hardware.microphone . REQUIRED 4.75 to 12.2 kbps sampled @ 8kHz 3GPP (.3gp)
AMR-WB REQUIRED for device implementations that include microphone hardware and define android.hardware.microphone . REQUIRED 9 rates from 6.60 kbit/s to 23.85 kbit/s sampled @ 16kHz 3GPP (.3gp)
FLAC REQUIRED
(Android 3.1+)
Mono/Stereo (no multichannel). Sample rates up to 48 kHz (but up to 44.1 kHz is recommended on devices with 44.1 kHz output, as the 48 to 44.1 kHz downsampler does not include a low-pass filter). 16-bit recommended; no dither applied for 24-bit. FLAC (.flac) only
MP3 REQUIRED Mono/Stereo 8-320Kbps constant (CBR) or variable bit-rate (VBR) MP3 (.mp3)
MIDI REQUIRED MIDI Type 0 and 1. DLS Version 1 and 2. XMF and Mobile XMF. Support for ringtone formats RTTTL/RTX, OTA, and iMelody
  • Type 0 and 1 (.mid, .xmf, .mxmf)
  • RTTTL/RTX (.rtttl, .rtx)
  • OTA (.ota)
  • iMelody (.imy)
Vorbis REQUIRED
  • Ogg (.ogg)
  • Matroska (.mkv)
PCM/WAVE REQUIRED REQUIRED 8-bit and 16-bit linear PCM** (rates up to limit of hardware).Devices MUST support sampling rates for raw PCM recording at 8000,16000 and 44100 Hz frequencies WAVE (.wav)
Image JPEG REQUIRED REQUIRED Base+progressive JPEG (.jpg)
GIF REQUIRED GIF (.gif)
PNG REQUIRED REQUIRED PNG (.png)
BMP REQUIRED BMP (.bmp)
WEBP REQUIRED REQUIRED WebP (.webp)
Video H.263 REQUIRED for device implementations that include camera hardware and define android.hardware.camera or android.hardware.camera.front . REQUIRED
  • 3GPP (.3gp)
  • MPEG-4 (.mp4)
H.264 AVC REQUIRED for device implementations that include camera hardware and define android.hardware.camera or android.hardware.camera.front . REQUIRED Baseline Profile (BP)
  • 3GPP (.3gp)
  • MPEG-4 (.mp4)
  • MPEG-TS (.ts, AAC audio only, not seekable, Android 3.0+)
MPEG-4 SP REQUIRED 3GPP (.3gp)
VP8 REQUIRED
(Android 4.3+)
REQUIRED
(Android 2.3.3+)
WebM (.webm) and Matroska (.mkv, Android 4.0+)***
  • *Note: Only downmix of 5.0/5.1 content is required; recording or rendering more than 2 channels is optional.
  • **Note: 16-bit linear PCM capture is mandatory. 8-bit linear PCM capture is not mandatory.
  • ***Note: Device implementations SHOULD support writing Matroska WebM files.

5.2 Video Encoding

Android device implementations that include a rear-facing camera and declare android.hardware.camera SHOULD support the following H.264 video encoding profiles.

SD (Low quality) SD (High quality) HD (When supported by hardware)
Video resolution 176 x 144 px 480 x 360 px 1280 x 720 px
Video frame rate 12 fps 30 fps 30 fps
Video bitrate 56 Kbps 500 Kbps or higher 2 Mbps or higher
Audio codec AAC-LC AAC-LC AAC-LC
Audio channels 1 (mono) 2 (stereo) 2 (stereo)
Audio bitrate 24 Kbps 128 Kbps 192 Kbps

Android device implementations that include a rear-facing camera and declare android.hardware.camera SHOULD support the following VP8 video encoding profiles

SD (Low quality) SD (High quality) HD 720p
(When supported by hardware)
HD 1080p
(When supported by hardware)
Video resolution 320 x 180 px 640 x 360 px 1280 x 720 px 1920 x 1080 px
Video frame rate 30 fps 30 fps 30 fps 30 fps
Video bitrate 800 Kbps 2 Mbps 4 Mbps 10 Mbps

5.3 Video Decoding

Android device implementations SHOULD support the following VP8 and H.264 video decoding profiles.

SD (Low quality) SD (High quality) HD 720p
(When supported by hardware)
HD 1080p
(When supported by hardware)
Video resolution 320 x 180 px 640 x 360 px 1280 x 720 px 1920 x 1080 px
Video frame rate 30 fps 30 fps 30 fps 30 fps
Video bitrate 800 Kbps 2 Mbps 8 Mbps 20 Mbps

5.4. Audio Recording

When an application has used the android.media.AudioRecord API to start recording an audio stream, device implementations that include microphone hardware and declare android.hardware.microphone MUST sample and record audio with each of these behaviors:

  • The device SHOULD exhibit approximately flat amplitude versus frequency characteristics; specifically, ±3 dB, from 100 Hz to 4000 Hz
  • Audio input sensitivity SHOULD be set such that a 90 dB sound power level (SPL) source at 1000 Hz yields RMS of 2500 for 16-bit samples.
  • PCM amplitude levels SHOULD linearly track input SPL changes over at least a 30 dB range from -18 dB to +12 dB re 90 dB SPL at the microphone.
  • Total harmonic distortion SHOULD be less than 1% for 1Khz at 90 dB SPL input level.

In addition to the above recording specifications, when an application has started recording an audio stream using the android.media.MediaRecorder.AudioSource.VOICE_RECOGNITION audio source:

  • Noise reduction processing, if present, MUST be disabled.
  • Automatic gain control, if present, MUST be disabled.

Note: while some of the requirements outlined above are stated as "SHOULD" for Android 4.3, the Compatibility Definition for a future version is planned to change these to "MUST". That is, these requirements are optional in Android 4.3 but will be required by a future version. Existing and new devices that run Android 4.3 are very strongly encouraged to meet these requirements in Android 4.3 , or they will not be able to attain Android compatibility when upgraded to the future version.

5.5. Audio Latency

Audio latency is the time delay as an audio signal passes through a system. Many classes of applications rely on short latencies, to achieve real-time sound effects.

For the purposes of this section:

  • "output latency" is defined as the interval between when an application writes a frame of PCM-coded data and when the corresponding sound can be heard by an external listener or observed by a transducer
  • "cold output latency" is defined as the output latency for the first frame, when the audio output system has been idle and powered down prior to the request
  • "continuous output latency" is defined as the output latency for subsequent frames, after the device is already playing audio
  • "input latency" is the interval between when an external sound is presented to the device and when an application reads the corresponding frame of PCM-coded data
  • "cold input latency" is defined as the sum of lost input time and the input latency for the first frame, when the audio input system has been idle and powered down prior to the request
  • "continuous input latency" is defined as the input latency for subsequent frames, while the device is already capturing audio
  • "OpenSL ES PCM buffer queue API" is the set of PCM-related OpenSL ES APIs within Android NDK; see NDK_root /docs/opensles/index.html

Per Section 5 , all compatible device implementations MUST include at least one form of audio output. Device implementations SHOULD meet or exceed these output latency requirements:

  • cold output latency of 100 milliseconds or less
  • continuous output latency of 45 milliseconds or less

If a device implementation meets the requirements of this section after any initial calibration when using the OpenSL ES PCM buffer queue API, for continuous output latency and cold output latency over at least one supported audio output device, it MAY report support for low-latency audio, by reporting the feature "android.hardware.audio.low-latency" via the android.content.pm.PackageManager class. [ Resources, 37 ] Conversely, if the device implementation does not meet these requirements it MUST NOT report support for low-latency audio.

Per Section 7.2.5 , microphone hardware may be omitted by device implementations.

Device implementations that include microphone hardware and declare android.hardware.microphone SHOULD meet these input audio latency requirements:

  • cold input latency of 100 milliseconds or less
  • continuous input latency of 50 milliseconds or less

5.6. Network Protocols

Devices MUST support the media network protocols for audio and video playback as specified in the Android SDK documentation [ Resources, 58 ]. Specifically, devices MUST support the following media network protocols:

  • RTSP (RTP, SDP)
  • HTTP(S) progressive streaming
  • HTTP(S) Live Streaming draft protocol, Version 3 [ Resources, 59 ]

6. Developer Tools and Options Compatibility

6.1 Developer Tools

Device implementations MUST support the Android Developer Tools provided in the Android SDK. Specifically, Android-compatible devices MUST be compatible with:

  • Android Debug Bridge (known as adb) [ Resources, 33 ]
    Device implementations MUST support all adb functions as documented in the Android SDK. The device-side adb daemon MUST be inactive by default, and there MUST be a user-accessible mechanism to turn on the Android Debug Bridge.
  • Android 4.3 includes support for secure adb. Secure adb enables adb on known authenticated hosts. Device implementations MUST support secure adb.
  • Dalvik Debug Monitor Service (known as ddms) [ Resources, 33 ]
    Device implementations MUST support all ddms features as documented in the Android SDK. As ddms uses adb , support for ddms SHOULD be inactive by default, but MUST be supported whenever the user has activated the Android Debug Bridge, as above.
  • Monkey [ Resources, 36 ]
    Device implementations MUST include the Monkey framework, and make it available for applications to use.
  • SysTrace [ Resources, 33 ]
    Device implementations MUST support systrace tool as documented in the Android SDK. Systrace must be inactive by default, and there MUST be a user-accessible mechanism to turn on Systrace.

Most Linux-based systems and Apple Macintosh systems recognize Android devices using the standard Android SDK tools, without additional support; however Microsoft Windows systems typically require a driver for new Android devices. (For instance, new vendor IDs and sometimes new device IDs require custom USB drivers for Windows systems.) If a device implementation is unrecognized by the adb tool as provided in the standard Android SDK, device implementers MUST provide Windows drivers allowing developers to connect to the device using the adb protocol. These drivers MUST be provided for Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, and Windows 8, in both 32-bit and 64-bit versions.

6.2 Developer Options

Android 4.3 includes support for developers to configure application development-related settings. Device implementations MUST honor the android.settings.APPLICATION_DEVELOPMENT_SETTINGS intent to show application development-related settings [ Resources, 77 ]. The upstream Android implementation hides the Developer Options menu by default, and enables users to launch Developer Options after pressing seven (7) times on the Settings > About Device > Build Number menu item. Device implementations MUST provide a consistent experience for Developer Options. Specifically, device implementations MUST hide Developer Options by default and MUST provide a mechanism to enable Developer Options that is consistent with the upstream Android implementation.

7. Hardware Compatibility

If a device includes a particular hardware component that has a corresponding API for third-party developers, the device implementation MUST implement that API as described in the Android SDK documentation. If an API in the SDK interacts with a hardware component that is stated to be optional and the device implementation does not possess that component:

  • complete class definitions (as documented by the SDK) for the component's APIs MUST still be present
  • the API's behaviors MUST be implemented as no-ops in some reasonable fashion
  • API methods MUST return null values where permitted by the SDK documentation
  • API methods MUST return no-op implementations of classes where null values are not permitted by the SDK documentation
  • API methods MUST NOT throw exceptions not documented by the SDK documentation

A typical example of a scenario where these requirements apply is the telephony API: even on non-phone devices, these APIs must be implemented as reasonable no-ops.

Device implementations MUST accurately report accurate hardware configuration information via the getSystemAvailableFeatures() and hasSystemFeature(String) methods on the android.content.pm.PackageManager class. [ Resources, 37 ]

7.1. Display and Graphics

Android 4.3 includes facilities that automatically adjust application assets and UI layouts appropriately for the device, to ensure that third-party applications run well on a variety of hardware configurations [ Resources, 38 ]. Devices MUST properly implement these APIs and behaviors, as detailed in this section.

The units referenced by the requirements in this section are defined as follows:

  • "Physical diagonal size" is the distance in inches between two opposing corners of the illuminated portion of the display.
  • "dpi" (meaning "dots per inch") is the number of pixels encompassed by a linear horizontal or vertical span of 1". Where dpi values are listed, both horizontal and vertical dpi must fall within the range.
  • "Aspect ratio" is the ratio of the longer dimension of the screen to the shorter dimension. For example, a display of 480x854 pixels would be 854 / 480 = 1.779, or roughly "16:9".
  • A "density-independent pixel" or ("dp") is the virtual pixel unit normalized to a 160 dpi screen, calculated as: pixels = dps * (density / 160) .

7.1.1. Screen Configuration

Screen Size

The Android UI framework supports a variety of different screen sizes, and allows applications to query the device screen size (aka "screen layout") via android.content.res.Configuration.screenLayout with the SCREENLAYOUT_SIZE_MASK . Device implementations MUST report the correct screen size as defined in the Android SDK documentation [ Resources, 38 ] and determined by the upstream Android platform. Specifically, device implementations must report the correct screen size according to the following logical density-independent pixel (dp) screen dimensions.

  • Devices MUST have screen sizes of at least 426 dp x 320 dp ('small')
  • Devices that report screen size 'normal' MUST have screen sizes of at least 480 dp x 320 dp
  • Devices that report screen size 'large' MUST have screen sizes of at least 640 dp x 480 dp
  • Devices that report screen size 'xlarge' MUST have screen sizes of at least 960 dp x 720 dp

In addition, devices MUST have screen sizes of at least 2.5 inches in physical diagonal size.

Devices MUST NOT change their reported screen size at any time.

Applications optionally indicate which screen sizes they support via the <supports-screens> attribute in the AndroidManifest.xml file. Device implementations MUST correctly honor applications' stated support for small, normal, large, and xlarge screens, as described in the Android SDK documentation.

Screen Aspect Ratio

The aspect ratio MUST be between 1.3333 (4:3) and 1.85 (16:9).

Screen Density

The Android UI framework defines a set of standard logical densities to help application developers target application resources. Device implementations MUST report one of the following logical Android framework densities through the android.util.DisplayMetrics APIs, and MUST execute applications at this standard density.

  • 120 dpi, known as 'ldpi'
  • 160 dpi, known as 'mdpi'
  • 213 dpi, known as 'tvdpi'
  • 240 dpi, known as 'hdpi'
  • 320 dpi, known as 'xhdpi'
  • 480 dpi, known as 'xxhdpi'
  • 640 dpi, known as 'xxxhdpi'
Device implementations SHOULD define the standard Android framework density that is numerically closest to the physical density of the screen, unless that logical density pushes the reported screen size below the minimum supported. If the standard Android framework density that is numerically closest to the physical density results in a screen size that is smaller than the smallest supported compatible screen size (320 dp width), device implementations SHOULD report the next lowest standard Android framework density.

7.1.2. Display Metrics

Device implementations MUST report correct values for all display metrics defined in android.util.DisplayMetrics [ Resources, 39 ].

7.1.3. Screen Orientation

Devices MUST support dynamic orientation by applications to either portrait or landscape screen orientation. That is, the device must respect the application's request for a specific screen orientation. Device implementations MAY select either portrait or landscape orientation as the default.

Devices MUST report the correct value for the device's current orientation, whenever queried via the android.content.res.Configuration.orientation, android.view.Display.getOrientation(), or other APIs.

Devices MUST NOT change the reported screen size or density when changing orientation.

Devices MUST report which screen orientations they support ( android.hardware.screen.portrait and/or android.hardware.screen.landscape ) and MUST report at least one supported orientation. For example, a device with a fixed-orientation landscape screen, such as a television or laptop, MUST only report android.hardware.screen.landscape .

7.1.4. 2D and 3D Graphics Acceleration

Device implementations MUST support both OpenGL ES 1.0 and 2.0, as embodied and detailed in the Android SDK documentations. Device implementations SHOULD support OpenGL ES 3.0 on devices capable of supporting OpenGL ES 3.0. Device implementations MUST also support Android Renderscript, as detailed in the Android SDK documentation [ Resources, 8 ].

Device implementations MUST also correctly identify themselves as supporting OpenGL ES 1.0, OpenGL ES 2.0, or OpenGL ES 3.0. That is:

  • The managed APIs (such as via the GLES10.getString() method) MUST report support for OpenGL ES 1.0 and OpenGL ES 2.0
  • The native C/C++ OpenGL APIs (that is, those available to apps via libGLES_v1CM.so, libGLES_v2.so, or libEGL.so) MUST report support for OpenGL ES 1.0 and OpenGL ES 2.0.
  • Device implementations that declare support for OpenGL ES 3.0 MUST support OpenGL ES 3.0 managed APIs and include support for native C/C++ APIs. On device implementations that declare support for OpenGL ES 3.0, libGLESv2.so MUST export the OpenGL ES 3.0 function symbols in addition to the OpenGL ES 2.0 function symbols.

Device implementations MAY implement any desired OpenGL ES extensions. However, device implementations MUST report via the OpenGL ES managed and native APIs all extension strings that they do support, and conversely MUST NOT report extension strings that they do not support.

Note that Android 4.3 includes support for applications to optionally specify that they require specific OpenGL texture compression formats. These formats are typically vendor-specific. Device implementations are not required by Android 4.3 to implement any specific texture compression format. However, they SHOULD accurately report any texture compression formats that they do support, via the getString() method in the OpenGL API.

Android 4.3 includes a mechanism for applications to declare that they wanted to enable hardware acceleration for 2D graphics at the Application, Activity, Window or View level through the use of a manifest tag android:hardwareAccelerated or direct API calls [ Resources, 9 ].

In Android 4.3, device implementations MUST enable hardware acceleration by default, and MUST disable hardware acceleration if the developer so requests by setting android:hardwareAccelerated="false" or disabling hardware acceleration directly through the Android View APIs.

In addition, device implementations MUST exhibit behavior consistent with the Android SDK documentation on hardware acceleration [ Resources, 9 ].

Android 4.3 includes a TextureView object that lets developers directly integrate hardware-accelerated OpenGL ES textures as rendering targets in a UI hierarchy. Device implementations MUST support the TextureView API, and MUST exhibit consistent behavior with the upstream Android implementation.

Android 4.3 includes support for EGL_ANDROID_RECORDABLE , a EGLConfig attribute that indicates whether the EGLConfig supports rendering to an ANativeWindow that records images to a video. Device implementations MUST support EGL_ANDROID_RECORDABLE extension [ Resources, 79 ].

7.1.5. Legacy Application Compatibility Mode

Android 4.3 specifies a "compatibility mode" in which the framework operates in an 'normal' screen size equivalent (320dp width) mode for the benefit of legacy applications not developed for old versions of Android that pre-date screen-size independence. Device implementations MUST include support for legacy application compatibility mode as implemented by the upstream Android open source code. That is, device implementations MUST NOT alter the triggers or thresholds at which compatibility mode is activated, and MUST NOT alter the behavior of the compatibility mode itself.

7.1.6. Screen Types

Device implementation screens are classified as one of two types:

  • Fixed-pixel display implementations: the screen is a single panel that supports only a single pixel width and height. Typically the screen is physically integrated with the device. Examples include mobile phones, tablets, and so on.
  • Variable-pixel display implementations: the device implementation either has no embedded screen and includes a video output port such as VGA, HDMI or a wireless port for display, or has an embedded screen that can change pixel dimensions. Examples include televisions, set-top boxes, and so on.

Fixed-Pixel Device Implementations

Fixed-pixel device implementations MAY use screens of any pixel dimensions, provided that they meet the requirements defined this Compatibility Definition.

Fixed-pixel implementations MAY include a video output port for use with an external display. However, if that display is ever used for running apps, the device MUST meet the following requirements:

  • The device MUST report the same screen configuration and display metrics, as detailed in Sections 7.1.1 and 7.1.2, as the fixed-pixel display.
  • The device MUST report the same logical density as the fixed-pixel display.
  • The device MUST report screen dimensions that are the same as, or very close to, the fixed-pixel display.

For example, a tablet that is 7" diagonal size with a 1024x600 pixel resolution is considered a fixed-pixel large mdpi display implementation. If it contains a video output port that displays at 720p or 1080p, the device implementation MUST scale the output so that applications are only executed in a large mdpi window, regardless of whether the fixed-pixel display or video output port is in use.

Variable-Pixel Device Implementations

Variable-pixel device implementations MUST support one or both of 1280x720, or 1920x1080 (that is, 720p or 1080p). Device implementations with variable-pixel displays MUST NOT support any other screen configuration or mode. Device implementations with variable-pixel screens MAY change screen configuration or mode at runtime or boot-time. For example, a user of a set-top box may replace a 720p display with a 1080p display, and the device implementation may adjust accordingly.

Additionally, variable-pixel device implementations MUST report the following configuration buckets for these pixel dimensions:

  • 1280x720 (also known as 720p): 'large' screen size, 'tvdpi' (213 dpi) density
  • 1920x1080 (also known as 1080p): 'large' screen size, 'xhdpi' (320 dpi) density

For clarity, device implementations with variable pixel dimensions are restricted to 720p or 1080p in Android 4.3, and MUST be configured to report screen size and density buckets as noted above.

7.1.7. Screen Technology

The Android platform includes APIs that allow applications to render rich graphics to the display. Devices MUST support all of these APIs as defined by the Android SDK unless specifically allowed in this document. Specifically:

  • Devices MUST support displays capable of rendering 16-bit color graphics and SHOULD support displays capable of 24-bit color graphics.
  • Devices MUST support displays capable of rendering animations.
  • The display technology used MUST have a pixel aspect ratio (PAR) between 0.9 and 1.1. That is, the pixel aspect ratio MUST be near square (1.0) with a 10% tolerance.

7.1.8. External Displays

Android 4.3 includes support for secondary display to enable media sharing capabilities and developer APIs for accessing external displays. If a device supports an external display either via a wired, wireless or an embedded additional display connection then the device implementation MUST implement the display manager API as described in the Android SDK documentation [ Resources, 75 ]. Device implementations that support secure video output and are capable of supporting secure surfaces MUST declare support for Display.FLAG_SECURE . Specifically, device implementations that declare support for Display.FLAG_SECURE , MUST support HDCP 2.x or higher for Miracast wireless displays or HDCP 1.2 or higher for wired displays. The upstream Android open source implementation includes support for wireless (Miracast) and wired (HDMI) displays that satisfies this requirement.

7.2. Input Devices

7.2.1. Keyboard

Device implementations:

  • MUST include support for the Input Management Framework (which allows third party developers to create Input Management Engines - ie soft keyboard) as detailed at http://developer.android.com
  • MUST provide at least one soft keyboard implementation (regardless of whether a hard keyboard is present)
  • MAY include additional soft keyboard implementations
  • MAY include a hardware keyboard
  • MUST NOT include a hardware keyboard that does not match one of the formats specified in android.content.res.Configuration.keyboard [ Resources, 40 ] (that is, QWERTY, or 12-key)

7.2.2. Non-touch Navigation

Device implementations:

  • MAY omit a non-touch navigation option (that is, may omit a trackball, d-pad, or wheel)
  • MUST report the correct value for android.content.res.Configuration.navigation [ Resources, 40 ]
  • MUST provide a reasonable alternative user interface mechanism for the selection and editing of text, compatible with Input Management Engines. The upstream Android open source implementation includes a selection mechanism suitable for use with devices that lack non-touch navigation inputs.

7.2.3. Navigation keys

The Home, Menu and Back functions are essential to the Android navigation paradigm. Device implementations MUST make these functions available to the user at all times when running applications. These functions MAY be implemented via dedicated physical buttons (such as mechanical or capacitive touch buttons), or MAY be implemented using dedicated software keys, gestures, touch panel, etc. Android 4.3 supports both implementations.

Android 4.3 includes support for assist action [ Resources, 63 ]. Device implementations MUST make the assist action available to the user at all times when running applications. This function MAY be implemented via hardware or software keys.

Device implementations MAY use a distinct portion of the screen to display the navigation keys, but if so, MUST meet these requirements:

  • Device implementation navigation keys MUST use a distinct portion of the screen, not available to applications, and MUST NOT obscure or otherwise interfere with the portion of the screen available to applications.
  • Device implementations MUST make available a portion of the display to applications that meets the requirements defined in Section 7.1.1 .
  • Device implementations MUST display the navigation keys when applications do not specify a system UI mode, or specify SYSTEM_UI_FLAG_VISIBLE .
  • Device implementations MUST present the navigation keys in an unobtrusive "low profile" (eg. dimmed) mode when applications specify SYSTEM_UI_FLAG_LOW_PROFILE .
  • Device implementations MUST hide the navigation keys when applications specify SYSTEM_UI_FLAG_HIDE_NAVIGATION .
  • Device implementation MUST present a Menu key to applications when targetSdkVersion <= 10 and SHOULD NOT present a Menu key when the targetSdkVersion > 10.

7.2.4. Touchscreen input

Device implementations SHOULD have a pointer input system of some kind (either mouse-like, or touch). However, if a device implementation does not support a pointer input system, it MUST NOT report the android.hardware.touchscreen or android.hardware.faketouch feature constant. Device implementations that do include a pointer input system:

  • SHOULD support fully independently tracked pointers, if the device input system supports multiple pointers
  • MUST report the value of android.content.res.Configuration.touchscreen [ Resources, 40 ] corresponding to the type of the specific touchscreen on the device

Android 4.3 includes support for a variety of touch screens, touch pads, and fake touch input devices. Touch screen based device implementations are associated with a display [ Resources, 81 ] such that the user has the impression of directly manipulating items on screen. Since the user is directly touching the screen, the system does not require any additional affordances to indicate the objects being manipulated. In contrast, a fake touch interface provides a user input system that approximates a subset of touchscreen capabilities. For example, a mouse or remote control that drives an on-screen cursor approximates touch, but requires the user to first point or focus then click. Numerous input devices like the mouse, trackpad, gyro-based air mouse, gyro-pointer, joystick, and multi-touch trackpad can support fake touch interactions. Android 4.0 includes the feature constant android.hardware.faketouch , which corresponds to a high-fidelity non-touch (that is, pointer-based) input device such as a mouse or trackpad that can adequately emulate touch-based input (including basic gesture support), and indicates that the device supports an emulated subset of touchscreen functionality. Device implementations that declare the fake touch feature MUST meet the fake touch requirements in Section 7.2.5 .

Device implementations MUST report the correct feature corresponding to the type of input used. Device implementations that include a touchscreen (single-touch or better) MUST report the platform feature constant android.hardware.touchscreen . Device implementations that report the platform feature constant android.hardware.touchscreen MUST also report the platform feature constant android.hardware.faketouch . Device implementations that do not include a touchscreen (and rely on a pointer device only) MUST NOT report any touchscreen feature, and MUST report only android.hardware.faketouch if they meet the fake touch requirements in Section 7.2.5 .

7.2.5. Fake touch input

Device implementations that declare support for android.hardware.faketouch

  • MUST report the absolute X and Y screen positions of the pointer location and display a visual pointer on the screen [ Resources, 80 ]
  • MUST report touch event with the action code [ Resources, 80 ] that specifies the state change that occurs on the pointer going down or up on the screen [ Resources, 80 ]
  • MUST support pointer down and up on an object on the screen, which allows users to emulate tap on an object on the screen
  • MUST support pointer down , pointer up , pointer down then pointer up in the same place on an object on the screen within a time threshold, which allows users to emulate double tap on an object on the screen [ Resources, 80 ]
  • MUST support pointer down on an arbitrary point on the screen, pointer move to any other arbitrary point on the screen, followed by a pointer up , which allows users to emulate a touch drag
  • MUST support pointer down then allow users to quickly move the object to a different position on the screen and then pointer up on the screen, which allows users to fling an object on the screen

Devices that declare support for android.hardware.faketouch.multitouch.distinct MUST meet the requirements for faketouch above, and MUST also support distinct tracking of two or more independent pointer inputs.

7.2.6. Microphone

Device implementations MAY omit a microphone. However, if a device implementation omits a microphone, it MUST NOT report the android.hardware.microphone feature constant, and must implement the audio recording API as no-ops, per Section 7 . Conversely, device implementations that do possess a microphone:

  • MUST report the android.hardware.microphone feature constant
  • SHOULD meet the audio quality requirements in Section 5.4
  • SHOULD meet the audio latency requirements in Section 5.5

7.3. Sensors

Android 4.3 includes APIs for accessing a variety of sensor types. Devices implementations generally MAY omit these sensors, as provided for in the following subsections. If a device includes a particular sensor type that has a corresponding API for third-party developers, the device implementation MUST implement that API as described in the Android SDK documentation. For example, device implementations:

  • MUST accurately report the presence or absence of sensors per the android.content.pm.PackageManager class. [ Resources, 37 ]
  • MUST return an accurate list of supported sensors via the SensorManager.getSensorList() and similar methods
  • MUST behave reasonably for all other sensor APIs (for example, by returning true or false as appropriate when applications attempt to register listeners, not calling sensor listeners when the corresponding sensors are not present; etc.)
  • MUST report all sensor measurements using the relevant International System of Units (ie metric) values for each sensor type as defined in the Android SDK documentation [ Resources, 41 ]

The list above is not comprehensive; the documented behavior of the Android SDK is to be considered authoritative.

Some sensor types are synthetic, meaning they can be derived from data provided by one or more other sensors. (Examples include the orientation sensor, and the linear acceleration sensor.) Device implementations SHOULD implement these sensor types, when they include the prerequisite physical sensors.

The Android 4.3 includes a notion of a "streaming" sensor, which is one that returns data continuously, rather than only when the data changes. Device implementations MUST continuously provide periodic data samples for any API indicated by the Android 4.3 SDK documentation to be a streaming sensor. Note that the device implementations MUST ensure that the sensor stream must not prevent the device CPU from entering a suspend state or waking up from a suspend state.

7.3.1. Accelerometer

Device implementations SHOULD include a 3-axis accelerometer. If a device implementation does include a 3-axis accelerometer, it:

  • SHOULD be able to deliver events at 120 Hz or greater. Note that while the accelerometer frequency above is stated as "SHOULD" for Android 4.3, the Compatibility Definition for a future version is planned to change these to "MUST". That is, these standards are optional in Android 4.3 but will be required in future versions. Existing and new devices that run Android 4.3 are very strongly encouraged to meet these requirements in Android 4.3 so they will be able to upgrade to the future platform releases
  • MUST comply with the Android sensor coordinate system as detailed in the Android APIs (see [ Resources, 41 ])
  • MUST be capable of measuring from freefall up to twice gravity (2g) or more on any three-dimensional vector
  • MUST have 8-bits of accuracy or more
  • MUST have a standard deviation no greater than 0.05 m/s^2

7.3.2. Magnetometer

Device implementations SHOULD include a 3-axis magnetometer (ie compass.) If a device does include a 3-axis magnetometer, it:

  • MUST be able to deliver events at 10 Hz or greater
  • MUST comply with the Android sensor coordinate system as detailed in the Android APIs (see [ Resources, 41 ]).
  • MUST be capable of sampling a range of field strengths adequate to cover the geomagnetic field
  • MUST have 8-bits of accuracy or more
  • MUST have a standard deviation no greater than 0.5 µT

7.3.3. GPS

Device implementations SHOULD include a GPS receiver. If a device implementation does include a GPS receiver, it SHOULD include some form of "assisted GPS" technique to minimize GPS lock-on time.

7.3.4. Gyroscope

Device implementations SHOULD include a gyroscope (ie angular change sensor.) Devices SHOULD NOT include a gyroscope sensor unless a 3-axis accelerometer is also included. If a device implementation includes a gyroscope, it:

  • MUST be temperature compensated
  • MUST be capable of measuring orientation changes up to 5.5*Pi radians/second (that is, approximately 1,000 degrees per second)
  • SHOULD be able to deliver events at 200 Hz or greater. Note that while the gyroscope frequency above is stated as "SHOULD" for Android 4.3, the Compatibility Definition for a future version is planned to change these to "MUST". That is, these standards are optional in Android 4.3 but will be required in future versions. Existing and new devices that run Android 4.3 are very strongly encouraged to meet these requirements in Android 4.3 so they will be able to upgrade to the future platform releases
  • MUST have 12-bits of accuracy or more
  • MUST have a variance no greater than 1e-7 rad^2 / s^2 per Hz (variance per Hz, or rad^2 / s). The variance is allowed to vary with the sampling rate, but must be constrained by this value. In other words, if you measure the variance of the gyro at 1 Hz sampling rate it should be no greater than 1e-7 rad^2/s^2.
  • MUST have timestamps as close to when the hardware event happened as possible. The constant latency must be removed.

7.3.5. Barometer

Device implementations MAY include a barometer (ie ambient air pressure sensor.) If a device implementation includes a barometer, it:

  • MUST be able to deliver events at 5 Hz or greater
  • MUST have adequate precision to enable estimating altitude
  • MUST be temperature compensated

7.3.6. Thermometer

Device implementations MAY but SHOULD NOT include a thermometer (ie temperature sensor.) If a device implementation does include a thermometer, it MUST measure the temperature of the device CPU. It MUST NOT measure any other temperature. (Note that this sensor type is deprecated in the Android 4.3 APIs.)

7.3.7. Photometer

Device implementations MAY include a photometer (ie ambient light sensor.)

7.3.8. Proximity Sensor

Device implementations MAY include a proximity sensor. If a device implementation does include a proximity sensor, it MUST measure the proximity of an object in the same direction as the screen. That is, the proximity sensor MUST be oriented to detect objects close to the screen, as the primary intent of this sensor type is to detect a phone in use by the user. If a device implementation includes a proximity sensor with any other orientation, it MUST NOT be accessible through this API. If a device implementation has a proximity sensor, it MUST be have 1-bit of accuracy or more.

7.4. Data Connectivity

7.4.1. Telephony

"Telephony" as used by the Android 4.3 APIs and this document refers specifically to hardware related to placing voice calls and sending SMS messages via a GSM or CDMA network. While these voice calls may or may not be packet-switched, they are for the purposes of Android 4.3 considered independent of any data connectivity that may be implemented using the same network. In other words, the Android "telephony" functionality and APIs refer specifically to voice calls and SMS; for instance, device implementations that cannot place calls or send/receive SMS messages MUST NOT report the "android.hardware.telephony" feature or any sub-features, regardless of whether they use a cellular network for data connectivity.

Android 4.3 MAY be used on devices that do not include telephony hardware. That is, Android 4.3 is compatible with devices that are not phones. However, if a device implementation does include GSM or CDMA telephony, it MUST implement full support for the API for that technology. Device implementations that do not include telephony hardware MUST implement the full APIs as no-ops.

7.4.2. IEEE 802.11 (WiFi)

Android 4.3 device implementations SHOULD include support for one or more forms of 802.11 (b/g/a/n, etc.) If a device implementation does include support for 802.11, it MUST implement the corresponding Android API.

Device implementations MUST implement the multicast API as described in the SDK documentation [ Resources, 62 ]. Device implementations that do include Wifi support MUST support multicast DNS (mDNS). Device implementations MUST NOT filter mDNS packets (224.0.0.251) at any time of operation including when the screen is not in an active state.

7.4.2.1. WiFi Direct

Device implementations SHOULD include support for Wifi direct (Wifi peer-to-peer). If a device implementation does include support for Wifi direct, it MUST implement the corresponding Android API as described in the SDK documentation [ Resources, 68 ]. If a device implementation includes support for Wifi direct, then it:

  • MUST support regular Wifi operation
  • SHOULD support concurrent wifi and wifi Direct operation

7.4.3. Bluetooth

Device implementations SHOULD include a Bluetooth transceiver. Device implementations that do include a Bluetooth transceiver MUST enable the RFCOMM-based Bluetooth API as described in the SDK documentation and declare hardware feature android.hardware.bluetooth [ Resources, 42 ]. Device implementations SHOULD implement relevant Bluetooth profiles, such as A2DP, AVRCP, OBEX, etc. as appropriate for the device.

Device implementations that do include support for Bluetooth GATT (generic attribute profile) to enable communication with Bluetooth Smart or Smart Ready devices MUST enable the GATT-based Bluetooth API as described in the SDK documentation and declare hardware feature android.hardware.bluetooth_le [ Resources, 42 ].

7.4.4. Near-Field Communications

Device implementations SHOULD include a transceiver and related hardware for Near-Field Communications (NFC). If a device implementation does include NFC hardware, then it:

  • MUST report the android.hardware.nfc feature from the android.content.pm.PackageManager.hasSystemFeature() method. [ Resources, 37 ]
  • MUST be capable of reading and writing NDEF messages via the following NFC standards:
    • MUST be capable of acting as an NFC Forum reader/writer (as defined by the NFC Forum technical specification NFCForum-TS-DigitalProtocol-1.0) via the following NFC standards:
      • NfcA (ISO14443-3A)
      • NfcB (ISO14443-3B)
      • NfcF (JIS 6319-4)
      • IsoDep (ISO 14443-4)
      • NFC Forum Tag Types 1, 2, 3, 4 (defined by the NFC Forum)
  • SHOULD be capable of reading and writing NDEF messages via the following NFC standards. Note that while the NFC standards below are stated as "SHOULD" for Android 4.3, the Compatibility Definition for a future version is planned to change these to "MUST". That is, these standards are optional in Android 4.3 but will be required in future versions. Existing and new devices that run Android 4.3 are very strongly encouraged to meet these requirements in Android 4.3 so they will be able to upgrade to the future platform releases.
    • NfcV (ISO 15693)
  • MUST be capable of transmitting and receiving data via the following peer-to-peer standards and protocols:
    • ISO 18092
    • LLCP 1.0 (defined by the NFC Forum)
    • SDP 1.0 (defined by the NFC Forum)
    • NDEF Push Protocol [ Resources, 43 ]
    • SNEP 1.0 (defined by the NFC Forum)
  • MUST include support for Android Beam [ Resources, 65 ]:
    • MUST implement the SNEP default server. Valid NDEF messages received by the default SNEP server MUST be dispatched to applications using the android.nfc.ACTION_NDEF_DISCOVERED intent. Disabling Android Beam in settings MUST NOT disable dispatch of incoming NDEF message.
    • Device implementations MUST honor the android.settings.NFCSHARING_SETTINGS intent to show NFC sharing settings [ Resources, 67 ].
    • MUST implement the NPP server. Messages received by the NPP server MUST be processed the same way as the SNEP default server.
    • MUST implement a SNEP client and attempt to send outbound P2P NDEF to the default SNEP server when Android Beam is enabled. If no default SNEP server is found then the client MUST attempt to send to an NPP server.
    • MUST allow foreground activities to set the outbound P2P NDEF message using android.nfc.NfcAdapter.setNdefPushMessage, and android.nfc.NfcAdapter.setNdefPushMessageCallback, and android.nfc.NfcAdapter.enableForegroundNdefPush.
    • SHOULD use a gesture or on-screen confirmation, such as 'Touch to Beam', before sending outbound P2P NDEF messages.
    • SHOULD enable Android Beam by default
    • MUST support NFC Connection handover to Bluetooth when the device supports Bluetooth Object Push Profile. Device implementations must support connection handover to Bluetooth when using android.nfc.NfcAdapter.setBeamPushUris, by implementing the "Connection Handover version 1.2" [ Resources, 60 ] and "Bluetooth Secure Simple Pairing Using NFC version 1.0" [ Resources, 61 ] specs from the NFC Forum. Such an implementation SHOULD use SNEP GET requests for exchanging the handover request / select records over NFC, and it MUST use the Bluetooth Object Push Profile for the actual Bluetooth data transfer.
  • MUST poll for all supported technologies while in NFC discovery mode.
  • SHOULD be in NFC discovery mode while the device is awake with the screen active and the lock-screen unlocked.

(Note that publicly available links are not available for the JIS, ISO, and NFC Forum specifications cited above.)

Additionally, device implementations MAY include reader/writer support for the following MIFARE technologies.

Note that Android 4.3 includes APIs for these MIFARE types. If a device implementation supports MIFARE in the reader/writer role, it:

  • MUST implement the corresponding Android APIs as documented by the Android SDK
  • MUST report the feature com.nxp.mifare from the android.content.pm.PackageManager.hasSystemFeature() method. [ Resources, 37 ] Note that this is not a standard Android feature, and as such does not appear as a constant on the PackageManager class.
  • MUST NOT implement the corresponding Android APIs nor report the com.nxp.mifare feature unless it also implements general NFC support as described in this section

If a device implementation does not include NFC hardware, it MUST NOT declare the android.hardware.nfc feature from the android.content.pm.PackageManager.hasSystemFeature() method [ Resources, 37 ], and MUST implement the Android 4.3 NFC API as a no-op.

As the classes android.nfc.NdefMessage and android.nfc.NdefRecord represent a protocol-independent data representation format, device implementations MUST implement these APIs even if they do not include support for NFC or declare the android.hardware.nfc feature.

7.4.5. Minimum Network Capability

Device implementations MUST include support for one or more forms of data networking. Specifically, device implementations MUST include support for at least one data standard capable of 200Kbit/sec or greater. Examples of technologies that satisfy this requirement include EDGE, HSPA, EV-DO, 802.11g, Ethernet, etc.

Device implementations where a physical networking standard (such as Ethernet) is the primary data connection SHOULD also include support for at least one common wireless data standard, such as 802.11 (WiFi).

Devices MAY implement more than one form of data connectivity.

7.5. Cameras

Device implementations SHOULD include a rear-facing camera, and MAY include a front-facing camera. A rear-facing camera is a camera located on the side of the device opposite the display; that is, it images scenes on the far side of the device, like a traditional camera. A front-facing camera is a camera located on the same side of the device as the display; that is, a camera typically used to image the user, such as for video conferencing and similar applications.

7.5.1. Rear-Facing Camera

Device implementations SHOULD include a rear-facing camera. If a device implementation includes a rear-facing camera, it:

  • MUST have a resolution of at least 2 megapixels
  • SHOULD have either hardware auto-focus, or software auto-focus implemented in the camera driver (transparent to application software)
  • MAY have fixed-focus or EDOF (extended depth of field) hardware
  • MAY include a flash. If the Camera includes a flash, the flash lamp MUST NOT be lit while an android.hardware.Camera.PreviewCallback instance has been registered on a Camera preview surface, unless the application has explicitly enabled the flash by enabling the FLASH_MODE_AUTO or FLASH_MODE_ON attributes of a Camera.Parameters object. Note that this constraint does not apply to the device's built-in system camera application, but only to third-party applications using Camera.PreviewCallback .

7.5.2. Front-Facing Camera

Device implementations MAY include a front-facing camera. If a device implementation includes a front-facing camera, it:

  • MUST have a resolution of at least VGA (that is, 640x480 pixels)
  • MUST NOT use a front-facing camera as the default for the Camera API. That is, the camera API in Android 4.3 has specific support for front-facing cameras, and device implementations MUST NOT configure the API to to treat a front-facing camera as the default rear-facing camera, even if it is the only camera on the device.
  • MAY include features (such as auto-focus, flash, etc.) available to rear-facing cameras as described in Section 7.5.1.
  • MUST horizontally reflect (ie mirror) the stream displayed by an app in a CameraPreview, as follows:
    • If the device implementation is capable of being rotated by user (such as automatically via an accelerometer or manually via user input), the camera preview MUST be mirrored horizontally relative to the device's current orientation.
    • If the current application has explicitly requested that the Camera display be rotated via a call to the android.hardware.Camera.setDisplayOrientation() [ Resources, 50 ] method, the camera preview MUST be mirrored horizontally relative to the orientation specified by the application.
    • Otherwise, the preview MUST be mirrored along the device's default horizontal axis.
  • MUST mirror the image displayed by the postview in the same manner as the camera preview image stream. (If the device implementation does not support postview, this requirement obviously does not apply.)
  • MUST NOT mirror the final captured still image or video streams returned to application callbacks or committed to media storage

7.5.3. Camera API Behavior

Device implementations MUST implement the following behaviors for the camera-related APIs, for both front- and rear-facing cameras:

  1. If an application has never called android.hardware.Camera.Parameters.setPreviewFormat(int) , then the device MUST use android.hardware.PixelFormat.YCbCr_420_SP for preview data provided to application callbacks.
  2. If an application registers an android.hardware.Camera.PreviewCallback instance and the system calls the onPreviewFrame() method when the preview format is YCbCr_420_SP, the data in the byte[] passed into onPreviewFrame() must further be in the NV21 encoding format. That is, NV21 MUST be the default.
  3. Device implementations MUST support the YV12 format (as denoted by the android.graphics.ImageFormat.YV12 constant) for camera previews for both front- and rear-facing cameras. (The hardware video encoder and camera may use any native pixel format, but the device implementation MUST support conversion to YV12.)

Device implementations MUST implement the full Camera API included in the Android 4.3 SDK documentation [ Resources, 51 ]), regardless of whether the device includes hardware autofocus or other capabilities. For instance, cameras that lack autofocus MUST still call any registered android.hardware.Camera.AutoFocusCallback instances (even though this has no relevance to a non-autofocus camera.) Note that this does apply to front-facing cameras; for instance, even though most front-facing cameras do not support autofocus, the API callbacks must still be "faked" as described.

Device implementations MUST recognize and honor each parameter name defined as a constant on the android.hardware.Camera.Parameters class, if the underlying hardware supports the feature. If the device hardware does not support a feature, the API must behave as documented. Conversely, Device implementations MUST NOT honor or recognize string constants passed to the android.hardware.Camera.setParameters() method other than those documented as constants on the android.hardware.Camera.Parameters . That is, device implementations MUST support all standard Camera parameters if the hardware allows, and MUST NOT support custom Camera parameter types. For instance, device implementations that support image capture using high dynamic range (HDR) imaging techniques MUST support camera parameter Camera.SCENE_MODE_HDR [ Resources, 78 ]).

Device implementations MUST broadcast the Camera.ACTION_NEW_PICTURE intent whenever a new picture is taken by the camera and the entry of the picture has been added to the media store.

Device implementations MUST broadcast the Camera.ACTION_NEW_VIDEO intent whenever a new video is recorded by the camera and the entry of the picture has been added to the media store.

7.5.4. Camera Orientation

Both front- and rear-facing cameras, if present, MUST be oriented so that the long dimension of the camera aligns with the screen's long dimension. That is, when the device is held in the landscape orientation, cameras MUST capture images in the landscape orientation. This applies regardless of the device's natural orientation; that is, it applies to landscape-primary devices as well as portrait-primary devices.

7.6. Memory and Storage

7.6.1. Minimum Memory and Storage

Device implementations MUST have at least 340MB of memory available to the kernel and userspace. The 340MB MUST be in addition to any memory dedicated to hardware components such as radio, video, and so on that is not under the kernel's control.

Device implementations MUST have at least 512MB of non-volatile storage available for application private data. That is, the /data partition MUST be at least 512MB. Device implementations that run Android 4.3 are very strongly encouraged to have at least 1GB of non-volatile storage for application private data so they will be able to upgrade to the future platform releases.

The Android APIs include a Download Manager that applications may use to download data files [ Resources, 56 ]. The device implementation of the Download Manager MUST be capable of downloading individual files of at least 100MB in size to the default "cache" location.

7.6.2. Application Shared Storage

Device implementations MUST offer shared storage for applications. The shared storage provided MUST be at least 1GB in size.

Device implementations MUST be configured with shared storage mounted by default, "out of the box". If the shared storage is not mounted on the Linux path /sdcard , then the device MUST include a Linux symbolic link from /sdcard to the actual mount point.

Device implementations MUST enforce as documented the android.permission.WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE permission on this shared storage. Shared storage MUST otherwise be writable by any application that obtains that permission.

Device implementations MAY have hardware for user-accessible removable storage, such as a Secure Digital card. Alternatively, device implementations MAY allocate internal (non-removable) storage as shared storage for apps.

Regardless of the form of shared storage used, device implementations MUST provide some mechanism to access the contents of shared storage from a host computer, such as USB mass storage (UMS) or Media Transfer Protocol (MTP). Device implementations MAY use USB mass storage, but SHOULD use Media Transfer Protocol. If the device implementation supports Media Transfer Protocol:

  • The device implementation SHOULD be compatible with the reference Android MTP host, Android File Transfer [ Resources, 57 ].
  • The device implementation SHOULD report a USB device class of 0x00 .
  • The device implementation SHOULD report a USB interface name of 'MTP'.

If the device implementation lacks USB ports, it MUST provide a host computer with access to the contents of shared storage by some other means, such as a network file system.

It is illustrative to consider two common examples. If a device implementation includes an SD card slot to satisfy the shared storage requirement, a FAT-formatted SD card 1GB in size or larger MUST be included with the device as sold to users, and MUST be mounted by default. Alternatively, if a device implementation uses internal fixed storage to satisfy this requirement, that storage MUST be 1GB in size or larger and mounted on /sdcard (or /sdcard MUST be a symbolic link to the physical location if it is mounted elsewhere.)

Device implementations that include multiple shared storage paths (such as both an SD card slot and shared internal storage) SHOULD modify the core applications such as the media scanner and ContentProvider to transparently support files placed in both locations.

7.7. USB

Device implementations SHOULD include a USB client port, and SHOULD include a USB host port.

If a device implementation includes a USB client port:

  • the port MUST be connectable to a USB host with a standard USB-A port
  • the port SHOULD use the micro USB form factor on the device side. Existing and new devices that run Android 4.3 are very strongly encouraged to meet these requirements in Android 4.3 so they will be able to upgrade to the future platform releases
  • the port SHOULD be centered in the middle of an edge. Device implementations SHOULD either locate the port on the bottom of the device (according to natural orientation) or enable software screen rotation for all apps (including home screen), so that the display draws correctly when the device is oriented with the port at bottom. Existing and new devices that run Android 4.3 are very strongly encouraged to meet these requirements in Android 4.3 so they will be able to upgrade to future platform releases.
  • if the device has other ports (such as a non-USB charging port) it SHOULD be on the same edge as the micro-USB port
  • it MUST allow a host connected to the device to access the contents of the shared storage volume using either USB mass storage or Media Transfer Protocol
  • it MUST implement the Android Open Accessory API and specification as documented in the Android SDK documentation, and MUST declare support for the hardware feature android.hardware.usb.accessory [ Resources, 52 ]
  • it MUST implement the USB audio class as documented in the Android SDK documentation [ Resources, 66 ]
  • it SHOULD implement support for USB battery charging specification [ Resources, 64 ] Existing and new devices that run Android 4.3 are very strongly encouraged to meet these requirements in Android 4.3 so they will be able to upgrade to the future platform releases

If a device implementation includes a USB host port:

  • it MAY use a non-standard port form factor, but if so MUST ship with a cable or cables adapting the port to standard USB-A
  • it MUST implement the Android USB host API as documented in the Android SDK, and MUST declare support for the hardware feature android.hardware.usb.host [ Resources, 53 ]

Device implementations MUST implement the Android Debug Bridge. If a device implementation omits a USB client port, it MUST implement the Android Debug Bridge via local-area network (such as Ethernet or 802.11)

8. Performance Compatibility

Device implementations MUST meet the key performance metrics of an Android 4.3 compatible device defined in the table below:

Metric Performance Threshold Comments
Application Launch Time The following applications should launch within the specified time.
  • Browser: less than 1300ms
  • Contacts: less than 700ms
  • Settings: less than 700ms
The launch time is measured as the total time to complete loading the default activity for the application, including the time it takes to start the Linux process, load the Android package into the Dalvik VM, and call onCreate.
Simultaneous Applications When multiple applications have been launched, re-launching an already-running application after it has been launched must take less than the original launch time.

9. Security Model Compatibility

Device implementations MUST implement a security model consistent with the Android platform security model as defined in Security and Permissions reference document in the APIs [ Resources, 54 ] in the Android developer documentation. Device implementations MUST support installation of self-signed applications without requiring any additional permissions/certificates from any third parties/authorities. Specifically, compatible devices MUST support the security mechanisms described in the follow sub-sections.

9.1. Permissions

Device implementations MUST support the Android permissions model as defined in the Android developer documentation [ Resources, 54 ]. Specifically, implementations MUST enforce each permission defined as described in the SDK documentation; no permissions may be omitted, altered, or ignored. Implementations MAY add additional permissions, provided the new permission ID strings are not in the android.* namespace.

9.2. UID and Process Isolation

Device implementations MUST support the Android application sandbox model, in which each application runs as a unique Unix-style UID and in a separate process. Device implementations MUST support running multiple applications as the same Linux user ID, provided that the applications are properly signed and constructed, as defined in the Security and Permissions reference [ Resources, 54 ].

9.3. Filesystem Permissions

Device implementations MUST support the Android file access permissions model as defined in the Security and Permissions reference [ Resources, 54 ].

9.4. Alternate Execution Environments

Device implementations MAY include runtime environments that execute applications using some other software or technology than the Dalvik virtual machine or native code. However, such alternate execution environments MUST NOT compromise the Android security model or the security of installed Android applications, as described in this section.

Alternate runtimes MUST themselves be Android applications, and abide by the standard Android security model, as described elsewhere in Section 9.

Alternate runtimes MUST NOT be granted access to resources protected by permissions not requested in the runtime's AndroidManifest.xml file via the <uses-permission> mechanism.

Alternate runtimes MUST NOT permit applications to make use of features protected by Android permissions restricted to system applications.

Alternate runtimes MUST abide by the Android sandbox model. Specifically:

  • Alternate runtimes SHOULD install apps via the PackageManager into separate Android sandboxes (that is, Linux user IDs, etc.)
  • Alternate runtimes MAY provide a single Android sandbox shared by all applications using the alternate runtime
  • Alternate runtimes and installed applications using an alternate runtime MUST NOT reuse the sandbox of any other app installed on the device, except through the standard Android mechanisms of shared user ID and signing certificate
  • Alternate runtimes MUST NOT launch with, grant, or be granted access to the sandboxes corresponding to other Android applications

Alternate runtimes MUST NOT be launched with, be granted, or grant to other applications any privileges of the superuser (root), or of any other user ID.

The .apk files of alternate runtimes MAY be included in the system image of a device implementation, but MUST be signed with a key distinct from the key used to sign other applications included with the device implementation.

When installing applications, alternate runtimes MUST obtain user consent for the Android permissions used by the application. That is, if an application needs to make use of a device resource for which there is a corresponding Android permission (such as Camera, GPS, etc.), the alternate runtime MUST inform the user that the application will be able to access that resource. If the runtime environment does not record application capabilities in this manner, the runtime environment MUST list all permissions held by the runtime itself when installing any application using that runtime.

9.5. Multi-User Support

Android 4.3 includes support for multiple users and provides support for full user isolation [ Resources, 70 ].

Device implementations MUST meet these requirements related to multi-user support [ Resources, 71 ]:

  • As the behavior of the telephony APIs on devices with multiple users is currently undefined, device implementations that declare android.hardware.telephony MUST NOT enable multi-user support.
  • Device implementations MUST, for each user, implement a security model consistent with the Android platform security model as defined in Security and Permissions reference document in the APIs [Resources, 54]
  • Android 4.3 includes support for restricted profiles, a feature that allows device owners to manage additional users and their capabilities on the device. With restricted profiles, device owners can quickly set up separate environments for additional users to work in, with the ability to manage finer-grained restrictions in the apps that are available in those environments. Device implementations that include support for multiple users MUST include support for restricted profiles. The upstream Android Open Source Project includes an implementation that satisfies this requirement.

Each user instance on an Android device MUST have separate and isolated external storage directories. Device implementations MAY store multiple users' data on the same volume or filesystem. However, the device implementation MUST ensure that applications owned by and running on behalf a given user cannot list, read, or write to data owned by any other user. Note that removable media, such as SD card slots, can allow one user to access another's data by means of a host PC. For this reason, device implementations that use removable media for the external storage APIs MUST encrypt the contents of the SD card if multi-user is enabled using a key stored only on non-removable media accessible only to the system. As this will make the media unreadable by a host PC, device implementations will be required to switch to MTP or a similar system to provide host PCs with access to the current user's data. Accordingly, device implementations MAY but SHOULD NOT enable multi-user if they use removable media [ Resources, 72 ] for primary external storage. The upstream Android Open Source Project includes an implementation that uses internal device storage for application external storage APIs; device implementations SHOULD use this configuration and software implementation. Device implementations that include multiple external storage paths MUST NOT allow Android applications to write to the secondary external storage.

9.6. Premium SMS Warning

Android 4.3 includes support for warning users for any outgoing premium SMS message [ Resources, 73 ] . Premium SMS messages are text messages sent to a service registered with a carrier that may incur a charge to the user. Device implementations that declare support for android.hardware.telephony MUST warn users before sending a SMS message to numbers identified by regular expressions defined in /data/misc/sms/codes.xml file in the device. The upstream Android Open Source Project provides an implementation that satisfies this requirement.

9.7. Kernel Security Features

The Android Sandbox in Android 4.3 includes features that can use the SELinux mandatory access control system (MAC) and other security features in the Linux kernel. Device implementations MUST support SELinux MAC. Note that the upstream Android Open Source Project provides an implementation that satisfies this requirement.

SELinux or any security features implemented below the Android framework MUST maintain compatibility with existing applications. These features SHOULD be invisible to users and developers. These features SHOULD NOT be user or developer configurable. If any API for configuration of policy is exposed to an application that can affect another application (such as a Device Administration API), the API MUST NOT allow configurations that break compatibility. To ensure continued compatibility the reference implementation allows the use of SELinux in a permissive mode and supports dynamic policy updates without requiring a system image update. Device implementations using SELinux MUST support this permissive mode, support dynamic policy updates and log any policy violations without breaking applications or affecting system behavior. Implementations using SELinux SHOULD load policy from /sepolicy file on the device. The upstream Android Open Source Project provides an implementation that satisfies this requirement. Device implementations SHOULD use the reference implementation in the Android Open Source Project, and device implementations MUST be compatible with the upstream Android Open Source Project.

10. Software Compatibility Testing

Device implementations MUST pass all tests described in this section.

However, note that no software test package is fully comprehensive. For this reason, device implementers are very strongly encouraged to make the minimum number of changes as possible to the reference and preferred implementation of Android 4.3 available from the Android Open Source Project. This will minimize the risk of introducing bugs that create incompatibilities requiring rework and potential device updates.

10.1. Compatibility Test Suite

Device implementations MUST pass the Android Compatibility Test Suite (CTS) [ Resources, 2 ] available from the Android Open Source Project, using the final shipping software on the device. Additionally, device implementers SHOULD use the reference implementation in the Android Open Source tree as much as possible, and MUST ensure compatibility in cases of ambiguity in CTS and for any reimplementations of parts of the reference source code.

The CTS is designed to be run on an actual device. Like any software, the CTS may itself contain bugs. The CTS will be versioned independently of this Compatibility Definition, and multiple revisions of the CTS may be released for Android 4.3. Device implementations MUST pass the latest CTS version available at the time the device software is completed.

10.2. CTS Verifier

Device implementations MUST correctly execute all applicable cases in the CTS Verifier. The CTS Verifier is included with the Compatibility Test Suite, and is intended to be run by a human operator to test functionality that cannot be tested by an automated system, such as correct functioning of a camera and sensors.

The CTS Verifier has tests for many kinds of hardware, including some hardware that is optional. Device implementations MUST pass all tests for hardware which they possess; for instance, if a device possesses an accelerometer, it MUST correctly execute the Accelerometer test case in the CTS Verifier. Test cases for features noted as optional by this Compatibility Definition Document MAY be skipped or omitted.

Every device and every build MUST correctly run the CTS Verifier, as noted above. However, since many builds are very similar, device implementers are not expected to explicitly run the CTS Verifier on builds that differ only in trivial ways. Specifically, device implementations that differ from an implementation that has passed the CTS Verifier only by the set of included locales, branding, etc. MAY omit the CTS Verifier test.

10.3. Reference Applications

Device implementers MUST test implementation compatibility using the following open source applications:

  • The "Apps for Android" applications [ Resources, 55 ]
  • Replica Island (available in Google Play Store)

Each app above MUST launch and behave correctly on the implementation, for the implementation to be considered compatible.

11. Updatable Software

Device implementations MUST include a mechanism to replace the entirety of the system software. The mechanism need not perform "live" upgrades - that is, a device restart MAY be required.

Any method can be used, provided that it can replace the entirety of the software preinstalled on the device. For instance, any of the following approaches will satisfy this requirement:

  • Over-the-air (OTA) downloads with offline update via reboot
  • "Tethered" updates over USB from a host PC
  • "Offline" updates via a reboot and update from a file on removable storage

The update mechanism used MUST support updates without wiping user data. That is, the update mechanism MUST preserve application private data and application shared data. Note that the upstream Android software includes an update mechanism that satisfies this requirement.

If an error is found in a device implementation after it has been released but within its reasonable product lifetime that is determined in consultation with the Android Compatibility Team to affect the compatibility of third-party applications, the device implementer MUST correct the error via a software update available that can be applied per the mechanism just described.

12. Contact Us

You can contact the document authors at compatibility@android.com for clarifications and to bring up any issues that you think the document does not cover.