Camera ITS-in-a-Box

Android Camera Image Test Suite (ITS) is part of Android Compatibility Test Suite (CTS) Verifier and includes tests that verify image content. CTS Verifier supports ITS test automation with Camera ITS-in-a-box; support for manual tests covers all Android device form factors.

ITS-in-a-box includes the following benefits:

  • Automation. No human intervention is needed during the test.
  • Easy troubleshooting. Consistency of test environment leads to fewer setup errors and increases reproducibility.
  • Efficiency. Ability to retry for individual camera/scene improves test execution efficiency.

Get started

ITS-in-a-box consists of a plastic box that is laser cut from computer-aided design (CAD) drawings, a chart tablet, and a device under test (DUT). You can use the wide field-of-view (WFoV) ITS-in-a-box, which is capable of testing both WFoV (FoV > 90 degrees) and RFoV (FoV < 90 degrees) cameras, or the regular field-of-view (RFoV) ITS-in-a-box.

To get started with the Camera ITS-in-a-box:

  1. Purchase or build a WFoV or RFoV ITS-in-a-box.
  2. Configure a tablet with Camera ITS software.
  3. Run tests.
  4. Get results from the DUT.

Configure the tablet

This section provides step-by-step instructions for setting up a tablet for use with the Camera ITS tests located in the CameraITS directory. These instructions use a Pixel C as an example tablet. For information on tablet requirements and recommendations, see Tablet requirements.

Note: The Camera ITS Python scripts automatically set the following options on the tablet for you:
Settings > Display > Sleep > After 30 minutes of inactivity
Adaptive brightness > OFF

  1. Charge the tablet and power it on. If prompted to set up an account, skip it (Camera ITS does not require any account paired with the tablet).
  2. Update the tablet to Android 7.0 or higher. Android 6.x and lower versions do not support Camera ITS.
  3. Enable developer mode.
  4. Return to Settings and select Developer options.
    Enable options
    • On
    • Stay awake
    • USB debugging (This allows the host to run the tablet in debug mode. When you connect the tablet to the host for the first time, the tablet prompts Allow USB debugging? If the tablet doesn't display the debug prompt, disconnect then reconnect the tablet.)
    Disable options
    • Automatic system updates
    • Verify apps over USB
  5. Determine DUT and chart IDs by running $ adb devices to list available devices. To determine device_id and chart_id, plug and unplug devices and observe the devices that connect and disconnect.
  6. Perform three test runs to suppress hints and user prompts that can obscure charts on the tablet screen.
    1. Position the tablet face up on a table (don't attach the tablet to the back panel of the box).
    2. Run the following command:
      python tools/ device=$device_id camera=0 chart=$chart_id scenes=2,3
      Scenes 2 and 3 require the tablet to display an image, so the tablet prompts Allow Drive to access photos, media, and files on your device?. Clear this prompt (and prevent future prompts) by pressing Allow.
    3. Run the command again. The tablet prompts Keep a copy of this file? and suggests Google Drive. Clear this prompt (and prevent future prompts) by pressing the Drive icon then Cancel for upload to drive.
    4. Finally, run tools/ and confirm that scenes change automatically as the script cycles through different scenes. While most tests fail (as the camera isn't pointed at the chart), you can verify that the tablet correctly cycles through the scenes without displaying any prompts or other popups on the screen.

Run tests

Before running the ITS-in-a-box, ensure that your test setup includes the following hardware and software:

  • One (1) ITS-in-a-box
  • One (1) high resolution 10" tablet for displaying scenes, S/N: 5811000011
  • One (1) DUT that has the CTS Verifier 7.0_8+ app installed. Example DUT:
    • One (1) Pixel NOF26W for the back camera(0) testing, S/N: FA6BM0305016. To install the CTS Verifier app, unzip then run
      adb -s FA6BM0305016 install -r -g android-cts-verifier/CtsVerifier.apk

Run tablet-based scenes

To run scenes 0 to 4, 6, and scene_change on the back camera:

cd android-cts-verifier/CameraITS
. build/
python tools/ camera=0


Camera 0 S/N: FA6BM0305016
Figure 1. Camera 0 S/N: FA6BM0305016

Retry scenes

You can retry scenes for a single camera:

  • To retry scenes on a single camera:
    python tools/ device=FA6BM0305016 camera=0 scenes=3,4

Run scene 5

Scene 5 requires special setup with specific lighting (for details, refer to CameraITS.pdf in CTS Verifier, which you can download at Compatibility Test Suite Downloads). You must run scene 5 separately (outside of the box).

camera scene 5
Figure 2. Camera scene 5

To run scene 5 for front and back cameras on a single device:

python tools/ device=FA6BM0305016 camera=0 scenes=5
python tools/ device=FA6BM0305016 camera=1 scenes=5

Get results

You can view results during testing and save the completed results as a report.

  • View results. To save Camera ITS results as a report:
    1. Press Pass and save the report.
      camera ITS report
      Figure 3. Camera ITS report
    2. Pull reports from the device:
      adb -s FA6BM0305016 pull /sdcard/verifierReports
    3. Unzip the report file and view test_result.xml.
      camera ITS reports
      Figure 4. Camera ITS reports

Tablet requirements

Tablets must have a display size of around 10 inches with a screen resolution greater than 1920 x 1200 pixels. The tablet must not use pulse width modulation (PWM) to set the brightness level. The brightness value must be set in config.yml according to the tablet model. The table below lists the recommended tablets for ITS testing along with the Android release versions for the DUT the tablets work with.

Device Display size
Display size
Tablet dimensions
tablet OS
Galaxy Tab A8
10.5 1920 x 1200 9.72 x 6.37 x 0.27 192 8 Android 13+ Android 11+
Pad 5
11 2560 x 1600 10.03 x 6.55 x 0.27 1024 11 Android 12+ Only Android 11
Tab M10 Plus
10.3 1920 x 1200 9.61 x 6.03 x 0.32 192 8 Android 12+ Android 9+
Galaxy Tab A7
10.4 2000 x 1200 9.75 x 6.2 x 0.28 192 8 Android 12+ Android 10+
Hi9 Air 10.1
10.1 2560 x 1600 9.52 x 6.77 x 0.31 192 8 Android 7+ Android 8+
ZenPad 3
9.7 2048 x 1536 9.47 x 6.44 x 0.28 192 8 Android 7+ Android 6+
MediaPad m5
10.8 2560 x 1600 10.18 x 6.76 x 0.29 192 8 Android 7+ Android 8+
Pixel C
10.2 2560 x 1800 9.53 x 7.05 x 0.28 96 8 Android 7+ Android 6+
Xperia Z4
10.1 2560 x 1600 10 x 6.57 x 0.24 192 8 Android 7+ Android 5+

Frequently asked questions

Q1: How do I determine which test rigs I need for my device?

The RFoV ITS-in-a-box revision 1 tests RFoV cameras for scene 0 to scene 4 tests in the CameraITS/tests directory. RFoV is defined as 60° < FoV < 90°. For larger FoV cameras, the lights might appear in the images or the charts might cover too small an area in the FoV, affecting test results.

The WFoV ITS-in-a-box revision 2 tests WFoV cameras for scene 0 to scene 4 tests in the CameraITS/tests directory. WFoV is defined as FoV >= 90°. It's functionally identical to revision 1, but larger. The revision 2 test rig can test both RFoV and WFoV cameras in Android 9 and higher.

The sensor fusion box tests the camera/gyroscope timing offset and multi-camera systems frame sync with tests in scenes=sensor_fusion. A camera/gyroscope timing offset of less than 1 ms is required for the REALTIME feature flag.

Multi-camera devices can be tested with a single rig for static ITS tests and a sensor fusion rig if the camera has the REALTIME feature flag.

A set of example configurations is provided in the table below.

Example Camera FoVs REALTIME? Recommended rigs Notes
1 75° No Rev 1 or 2 Android 7.0 or higher
2 75° Yes Rev 1 or 2 + sensor fusion Android 9 or higher
3 75° + 95° Yes Rev 2 + sensor fusion Android 9 or higher

Q2: How do I designate which test rig is in use?

To designate the correct test rig, ensure that the chart distance parameter is correct. The rev1 test rig (RFoV) has chart distance of 31 cm, and the rev2 rig (WFoV) has chart distance of 22 cm. By default the chart distance is set to 31 cm.

Android 10 to Android 11

To identify the correct test rig in Android 10 through 11 add the dist flag at the command line. The default value for dist is 31. Run the following command to change the chart_distance parameter.
python tools/ ... chart=# dist=22

Android 12

To identify the correct test rig in Android 12 you can edit the config.yml file to change the chart_distance parameter.
edit config.yml
chart_distance: 31.0 → chart_distance: 22.0

Q3: How do I control the tablet brightness?

By default, the tablet brightness is set to 96.

To change the brightness on tablets running Android 7.0 through Android 9, run:

edit tools/

To change the brightness on tablets running Android 10 through 11, the value can be changed at the command line by adding the brightness flag:

python tools/ device=# camera=# chart=# brightness=192

To change the brightness on tablets running Android 12, run:

edit config.yml
brightness: 96 → brightness: 192

Q4: How do I debug a single test?

Tests can be run individually for debugging purposes, but the results aren't reported to CtsVerifier.apk unless the entire scene is run.

To run an individual scene in Android 11 and lower:

  1. Load a scene by adding the scenes flag in tools/
    python tools/ device=# camera=# chart=# scenes=#
  2. Press Control+C to halt tests after the scene is logged as loaded to stdout.

    If the correct scene is already on the screen, wake up the screen:

    python tools/ screen=#
  3. Run an individual test.

    python tests/scene#/test_*.py device=# camera=#

    Plots are then generated in the local directory and stdout and stderr are printed to the screen.

    To get more information for debugging, add print statements to the script. To increase the test output for debugging, add the debug=True flag.

    python tests/scene#/test_*.py device=# camera=# debug=True

Results are printed to the local screen and images are saved in the local directory instead of the generated /tmp/tmp### directory when running tools/

To run an individual scene in Android 12:

  1. Edit the config.yml file.

    edit config.yml
    camera: <camera-id> → camera:  0
    scene: <scene-name> → scene: scene1_1
  2. Run the individual test.

    python tools/ -c config.yml --test_bed TEST_BED_TABLET_SCENES

Results are printed in the /tmp/logs/mobly/TEST_BED_TABLET_SCENES/ directory sorted by run time.

Q5: Why do I need to run failing tests as an entire scene instead of rerunning tests individually?

Tests can be run individually for debugging purposes, but the results are not reported to CtsVerifier.apk unless the entire scene is run.

Camera ITS ensures that third-party apps have a compatible camera interface. Similar to a unit test, each test stresses a single specification in the camera. To catch unreliable behavior, these tests are expected to pass as a group for an entire scene. For example, although a single unreliable test may pass a rerun of an entire scene, it's difficult for multiple unreliable tests to pass.

As an extreme example, consider the case where there are 10 tests in a scene that each has a 50% probability of returning PASS. By running each test individually, there's a high chance that an operator can get the camera to pass Camera ITS. However, if the tests are run in the aggregate as a scene, there's only a 0.1% chance that the scene will pass.

Q6: How do I run a single scene or reorder the run scenes?

By default, the script tools/ runs all scenes in order. However, scenes can be run individually or in a specified order and be reported to CtsVerifier.apk.

To run an individual scene (for example, scene 2) or run more than one scene in a specific order in Android 11 or lower:

python tools/ device=# camera=# chart=# scenes=2
python tools/ device=# camera=# chart=# scenes=3,2

To run an individual scene or run more than one scene in a specific order in Android 12:

python tools/ scenes=2
python tools/ scenes=3,2

The additional parameters are set in the config.yml file.

Q7: A number of scene 1 tests fail with the tablet setup but pass with a paper chart. What's wrong?

Ensure that the tablet and test environment meet the following specifications.

Tablet specifications

Make sure that the tablet meets the following specifications:

  • Display size (inches): 10 inches
  • Display size (pixels): greater than 1920 x 1200 pixels

For more details, see Tablet requirements.

Tablet brightness

Tests may not obtain correct results if the tablet display brightness is too low.

For more details, see How do I control the tablet brightness?

Box lighting level (requires lux meter)

Make sure that the target lux value at tablet opening is between 100 and 300.

If the lux level is too high, scene1/ returns FAIL. If the lux level is too low, multiple tests fail.

Q8: How do I debug sensor fusion tests?

  1. Ensure that you're in a dialout group.

    groups | egrep ‘dialout'
  2. Ensure that the sensor fusion controller is connected by determining if Microchip Technology is connected to the USB port.

    Bus 003 Device 004: ID 04d8:fc73 Microchip Technology, Inc.
  3. Run the test multiple times to get a distribution of test attempts with the following commands.

    In Android 11 or lower:

    python tools/ device=A camera=0 num_runs=10 rotator=default

    In Android 12:

    python tools/ num_runs=10

    The additional parameters are set in the config.yml file.

    Run outputs are in the /tmp/tmp### folder created under the sensor_fusion_# folders, where # is the run number. Common reasons for failure are:

    1. The phone isn't centered properly.
    2. Not enough features are found in the image (often a FoV or lighting issue).
    3. The returned FAIL is valid, and the timing offset between the camera and the gyroscope must be corrected.

Q9: What information should I include when reporting a testing bug?

When reporting a testing bug, include the generated files and images for the test.

  1. If you ran the test through tools/, attach a zipped /tmp/ directory to the bug.
  2. If you ran the test by itself, attach all of the screen outputs and generated images to the bug.

Also include a bug report. After the test in question fails, use the following command to generate a bug report and attach the generated zip file to the bug.

adb -s device_id bugreport

Q10: How do I run a sensor_fusion test scene with a camera that has a minimum focus distance that creates blurry images at 25 cm chart distance?

If your camera can't focus at a distance of 25 cm, remove the chart-mounting panel of the sensor fusion box. Place the chart at a distance where the DUT can focus and change chart_distance in config.yml to the measured distance between the DUT and the chart. Figure 5 shows an example of how to measure the chart distance in this situation.

sensor_fusion TELE testing example6
Figure 5. Measuring chart distance for sensor fusion test scene
  edit config.yml
chart_distance: 25 → chart_distance: DISTANCE_BETWEEN_DUT_AND_CHART

Q11: How do I run tablet test scenes for a camera with a minimum focus distance that creates blurry images at 31 cm chart distance?

If your camera can't produce sharp enough images testing at 31 cm (the depth of the RFoV test rig), mount your camera in front of the rig at a distance to allow the chart scene to fill approximately 60% of the camera field of view (FoV) with sharper images. This distance can be less than the minimum focus distance of the camera. Leave the chart_distance in config.yml at 31 cm. The chart scaling on the tablet is determined by the camera FoV as shown in the following table:

Camera FoV Chart scaling factor
60 > FoV > 40 0.67x
40 > FoV > 25 0.5x
FoV < 25 0.33x

Q12: With the logical multi-camera API, which tests are run on which cameras?

If your camera uses REQUEST_AVAILABLE_CAPABILITIES_LOGICAL_MULTI_CAMERA, all supported ITS tests are run on the top-level logical camera. A subset of the ITS tests are run on the physical sub-cameras, and these tests are listed in tools/ under the SUB_CAMERA_TESTS constant.