Atest is a command line tool that allows users to build, install, and run Android tests locally, greatly speeding up test re-runs without requiring knowledge of Trade Federation test harness command line options. This page explains how to use Atest to run Android tests.
For general information on writing tests for Android, see Android Platform Testing.
For information on the overall structure of Atest, refer to the Atest Developer Guide.
For information on running tests in TEST_MAPPING files through Atest, see Running tests in TEST_MAPPING files.
To add a feature to Atest, follow the Atest Developer Workflow.
Setting up your environment
Follow the steps in the following sections to set up your Atest environment.
Set environment variable
From the root of the Android source checkout, run:
lunch command to bring up a menu of supported devices. Find the
device and run that command.
For example, if you have an ARM device connected, run the following command:
This sets various environment variables required for running Atest and adds the
Atest command to your
Atest commands take the following form:
atest test-to-run [optional-arguments]
The following table lists the most commonly used arguments. A complete list is
||Builds test targets. (default)|
||Installs test artifacts (APKs) on device. (default)|
||Runs the tests. (default)|
||Runs the tests on the specified device. One device can be tested at a time.|
||Disables test teardown and cleanup.|
||Shows the relevant info about the specified targets, then exits.|
||Dry-runs Atest without actually building, installing, or running tests.|
||Forces a rebuild of the
||Waits for debugger to finish before executing.|
||Displays DEBUG level logging.|
||Loop-runs tests until the max iteration is reached. (10 by default)|
||Reruns all tests until a failure occurs or the max iteration is reached. (10 by default)|
||Reruns failed tests until passed or the max iteration is reached. (10 by default)|
||Automatically creates an AVD and runs tests on the virtual device.|
||Creates an AVD using the
||Specifies custom arguments for the test runners.|
||Runs the tests for all available device architectures.|
||Runs the test completely on the host without a device.
Note: Running a host test that requires a device with
||Shows the test result with flakes info.|
||Shows test results in chronological order.|
||Prints the latest test result.|
For more information on
-t, see the
Specify steps: build, install, or run section.
To run tests, specify one or more tests using one of the following identifiers:
- Module name
- Class name
- Tradefed integration test
- File path
- Package name
Separate references to multiple tests with spaces, like this:
atest test-identifier-1 test-identifier-2
To run an entire test module, use its module name. Input the name as it appears
LOCAL_PACKAGE_NAME variables in that test's
To run a single class within a module, use Module:Class. Module is the
same as described in Module name. Class is the name of the
test class in the
.java file, and can be the fully qualified class name or the
To run a single class without explicitly stating a module name, use the class name.
Tradefed integration test
To run tests that are integrated directly into TradeFed (non-modules), input the
name as it appears in the output of the
tradefed.sh list configs command. For
To run the
To run the
Atest supports running both module-based tests and integration-based tests by inputting the path to their test file or directory as appropriate. It also supports running a single class by specifying the path to the class's Java file. Both relative and absolute paths are supported.
Run a module
The following examples show two ways to run the
CtsVideoTestCases module using
a file path.
Run from Android
Run from Android
Run a test class
The following example shows how to run a specific class within the
CtsVideoTestCases module using a file path.
Run an integration test
The following example shows how to run an integration test using a file path
Atest supports searching for tests by package name.
Specify steps: Build, install, or run
-t options to specify which steps to run. If
you don't specify an option, then all steps run.
- Build targets only:
atest -b test-to-run
- Run tests only:
atest -t test-to-run
- Install apk and run tests:
atest -it test-to-run
- Build and run, but don't install:
atest -bt test-to-run
Atest can force a test to skip the cleanup or teardown step. Many tests, such as
CTS, clean up the device after the test is run, so trying to rerun your test
-t will fail without the
--disable-teardown parameter. Use
-t to skip the test clean up step and test iteratively.
atest -d test-to-run
atest -t test-to-run
Running specific methods
Atest supports running specific methods within a test class. Although the whole module needs to be built, this reduces the time needed to run the tests. To run specific methods, identify the class using any of the ways supported for identifying a class (Module:Class, file path, etc) and append the name of the method:
When specifying multiple methods, separate them with commas:
The following two examples show the preferred ways to run a single method,
testFlagChange. These examples are preferred over only using the class name
because specifying the module or the Java file location allows Atest to find the
test much more quickly.
From Android repo-root:
Multiple methods can be run from different classes and modules:
atest FrameworksServicesTests:ScreenDecorWindowTests#testFlagChange,testRemoval ScreenDecorWindowTests#testMultipleDecors
Running multiple classes
To run multiple classes, separate them with spaces in the same way as for running multiple tests. Atest builds and runs classes efficiently, so specifying a subset of classes in a module improves performance over running the whole module.
To run two classes in the same module:
atest FrameworksServicesTests:ScreenDecorWindowTests FrameworksServicesTests:DimmerTests
To run two classes in different modules:
atest FrameworksServicesTests:ScreenDecorWindowTests CtsVideoTestCases:VideoEncoderDecoderTest
Run GTest binaries
Atest can run GTest binaries. Use
-a to run these tests for all available
device architectures, which in this example are
armeabi-v7a (ARM 32-bit) and
arm64-v8a (ARM 64-bit).
Example input test:
atest -a libinput_tests inputflinger_tests
To select a specific GTest binary to run, use a colon (:) to specify the test name, and a hashtag (#) to further specify an individual method.
For example, for the following test definition:
Run the following to specify the entire test:
Or run an individual test using the following:
Run tests in
Atest can run tests in
Run presubmit tests implicitly
Run presubmit tests in
TEST_MAPPING files in current and parent directories:
Run presubmit tests in
TEST_MAPPING files in /path/to/project and
its parent directories:
atest --test-mapping /path/to/project
Run a specified test group
The available test groups are:
Run postsubmit tests in TEST_MAPPING files in current and parent directories:
<pre> <code class="devsite-terminal">atest :postsubmit</code> </pre>
Run tests from all groups in TEST_MAPPING files:
<pre> <code class="devsite-terminal">atest :all</code> </pre>
Run postsubmit tests in TEST_MAPPING files in /path/to/project and its parent directories:
<pre> <code class="devsite-terminal">atest --test-mapping <var>/path/to/project</var>:postsubmit</code> </pre>
Run mainline tests in TEST_MAPPING files in /path/to/project and its parent directories:
atest --test-mapping /path/to/project:mainline-presubmit
Run tests in sub-directories
By default, Atest only searches for tests in TEST_MAPPING files upwards (from
the current or the given directory to its parent directories). If you also want
to run tests in TEST_MAPPING files in the sub-directories, use
to force Atest to include those tests as well:
atest --include-subdirs /path/to/project
Run tests in iteration
Run tests in iteration by passing the
--iterations argument. Whether it passes
or fails, Atest will repeat the test until the max iteration is reached.
By default, Atest iterates 10 times. The number of iterations must be a positive integer.
atest test-to-run --iterations
atest test-to-run --iterations 5
The following approaches make it easier to detect flaky tests:
Approach 1: Run all tests until a failure occurs or the max iteration is reached.
- Stop when a failure occurs or the iteration reaches the 10th (by default) round.
atest test-to-run --rerun-until-failure
- Stop when a failure occurs or the iteration reaches the 100th round.
atest test-to-run --rerun-until-failure 100
Approach 2: Run only failed tests until passed or the max iteration is reached.
test-to-runhas multiple test cases and one of the tests fails. Run only the failed test 10 times (by default) or until the test passes.
atest test-to-run --retry-any-failure
- Stop running the failed test when it passes or reaches the 100th round.
atest test-to-run --retry-any-failure 100
Run tests on AVDs
Atest is able to run tests on a newly created AVD. Run
acloud create to create
an AVD and build artifacts, then use the following examples to run your tests.
Start an AVD and run tests on it:
acloud create --local-instance --local-image && atest test-to-run
Start an AVD as part of a test run:
atest test-to-run --acloud-create "--local-instance --local-image"
For more information, run
acloud create --help.
Pass options to module
Atest is able to pass options to test modules. To add TradeFed command line options to your test run, use the following structure and make sure your custom arguments follow the Tradefed command line option format.
atest test-to-run -- [CUSTOM_ARGS]
Pass test module options to target preparers or test runners defined in the test config file:
atest test-to-run -- --module-arg module-name:option-name:option-value
atest GtsPermissionTestCases -- --module-arg GtsPermissionTestCases:ignore-business-logic-failure:true
Pass options to a runner type or class:
atest test-to-run -- --test-arg test-class:option-name:option-value
atest CtsVideoTestCases -- --test-arg com.android.tradefed.testtype.JarHosttest:collect-tests-only:true
For more information on test-only options, see Pass options to the modules.