Test Templates

AOSP includes test templates for test modules that are not host-side Python subclass of VTS runner's BaseTest.

Figure 1. Test template architecture.

Developers can use these templates to minimize the effort involved in integrating such tests. This section covers configuring and using the test templates (located in the VTS testcases/template directory) and provides examples for commonly used templates.

BinaryTest template

Use the BinaryTest template to integrate tests that execute on target device in VTS. Target-side tests include:

  • C++ based tests compiled and pushed to device
  • Target-side Python tests compiled as binaries
  • Shell scripts executable on devices

These tests can be integrated into VTS with or without the BinaryTest template.

Integrating target-side tests with BinaryTest template

The BinaryTest template is designed to help developers easily integrate target-side tests. In most cases, you can add a few simple lines of configuration in AndroidTest.xml. Example configuration from VtsDeviceTreeEarlyMountTest:

<configuration description="Config for VTS VtsDeviceTreeEarlyMountTest.">
<test class="com.android.tradefed.testtype.VtsMultiDeviceTest">
<option name="test-module-name" value="VtsDeviceTreeEarlyMountTest"/>
<option name="binary-test-source" value="_32bit::DATA/nativetest/dt_early_mount_test/dt_early_mount_test" />
<option name="binary-test-source" value="_64bit::DATA/nativetest64/dt_early_mount_test/dt_early_mount_test" />
<option name="test-timeout" value="5m"/>

In this configuration:

  • binary-test-source and binary-test-type are template-specific.
  • Specifying the test binary source's relative host path enables the template to handle preparation, file pushing, test execution, result parsing, and cleanup.
  • The template contains test case creation-related methods for subclasses to override.
  • The template assumes one test case per test binary module, and the binary source file name is used as test case name by default.

Configuration options

The BinaryTest template supports the following configuration options:

Option name Value type Description
binary-test-source strings Binary test source paths relative to vts test-case directory on host.
Example: DATA/nativetest/test
binary-test-working-directory strings Working directories (device-side path).
Example: /data/local/tmp/testing/
binary-test-envp strings Environment variables for binary.
Example: PATH=/new:$PATH
binary-test-args strings Test arguments or flags.
Example: --gtest_filter=test1
binary-test-ld-library-path strings LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable.
Example: /data/local/tmp/lib
binary-test-disable-framework boolean Run adb stop to turn off the Android Framework before test. Example: true
binary-test-stop-native-servers boolean Stop all properly configured native servers during the testing. Example: true
binary-test-type string Template type. Other template types extend from this template, but you don't have to specify this option for this template because you already specified binary-test-source.

For options with value type strings, you can add multiple values by repeating the options in the configuration. For example, set binary-test-source twice (as shown in the VtsDeviceTreeEarlyMountTest example).

Test tags

You can add test tags by prefixing them to options with strings values and using :: as the delimiter. Test tags are especially useful when including binary sources with the same name but with different bitness or parent directories. For example, to avoid file push or result name collision for sources with the same name but from different source directories, you can specify different tags for these sources.

As shown in the VtsDeviceTreeEarlyMountTest example with the two dt_early_mount_test sources, the test tags are the _32bit:: and _64bit:: prefixes on binary-test-source. Tags ending with 32bit or 64bit automatically mark the tests as available to one ABI bitness; i.e. tests with the tag _32bit are not executed on 64-bit ABI. Not specifying a tag is equal to using a tag with an empty string.

Options with the same tags are grouped and isolated from other tags. For example, binary-test-args with the _32bit tag is applied only to binary-test-source with the same tag and executed in binary-test-working-directory with the same tag. The binary-test-working-directory option is optional for binary tests, allowing you to specify a single working directory for a tag. When the binary-test-working-directory option is left unspecified, default directories are used for each tag.

The tag name is directly appended to test case name in the result report. For example, test case testcase1 with tag _32bit appears as testcase1_32bit in the result report.

Integrating target-side tests without BinaryTest template

In VTS, the default test format is host-side Python tests extended from BaseTest in VTS runner. To integrate target-side tests, you must first push the test files to device, execute the tests using shell commands, then parse the results using host-side Python scripts.

Pushing test binaries

We recommend pushing files using VtsFilePusher target preparer. Example:

<target_preparer class="com.android.compatibility.common.tradefed.targetprep.VtsFilePusher">
        <option name="push" value="DATA/test->/data/local/tmp/test"/>

The VtsFilePusher does the following:

  1. Checks device connectivity.
  2. Determines the absolute source file path.
  3. Pushes the files using adb push command.
  4. Deletes the files after tests complete.

Alternatively, you can push files manually using a host-side Python test script that follows a similar procedure.

Running tests

After pushing files to the device, run the test using shell commands in a host-side Python test script. Example:

device = self.android_devices[0]
res = device.shell.Execute(["chmod a+x /data/local/tmp/test", "/data/local/tmp/test"])

GtestBinaryTest template

The GtestBinaryTest template hosts GTest test binaries, each of which usually contains multiple test cases. This template extends the BinaryTest template by overriding setup, test case creation, and result parsing methods, so all BinaryTest configurations are inherited.

GtestBinaryTest adds the option gtest-batch-mode:

Option name Value type Description
binary-test-type string Template type. Uses the value gtest.
gtest-batch-mode boolean Run Gtest binaries in batch mode. Example: true

In general, setting gtest-batch-mode to true increases performance while decreasing reliability slightly. In VTS compliance tests, many modules use batch mode to improve performance. For reliability however, if the mode is unspecified it defaults to non-batch.

Non-batch mode

Non-batch mode makes individual calls to GTest binary for each test case. For example, if the GTest binary contains 10 test cases (after filtering by host side configuration), the binary is called 10 times on device shell each time with a different test filter. For each test case, a unique GTest result output XML is generated and parsed by the template.

Figure 2. Non-batch mode.

The advantages of using non-batch mode include:

  • Test case isolation. A crash or hang in one test case does not affect other test cases.
  • Granularity. Easier to get per-test-case profiling/coverage measurement, systrace, bugreport, logcat, etc. Test results and logs are retrieved immediately after each test case finishes.

The disadvantages of using non-batch mode include:

  • Redundant loading. Each time GTest binary is called, it loads related libraries and performs initial class setups.
  • Communication overhead. After a test completes, the host and target device communicate for result parsing and next commands (future optimizations possible).

Batch mode

In GTest batch mode, the test binary is called only once with a long test filter value containing all test cases filtered by host-side configuration (this avoids the redundant loading issue in non-batch mode). You can parse test results for GTest using output.xml or using terminal output.

When using output.xml (default):

Figure 3. Batch mode, output.xml.

As in non-batch mode, the test result is parsed through GTest output xml file. However, because the output xml is generated after all tests are completed, if a test case crashed the binary or device no result xml file is generated.

When using terminal output:

Figure 4. Batch mode, terminal output.

While GTest is running, it prints the test log and progress to the terminal in a format that can be parsed by the framework for test status, results, and logs.

The advantages of using batch mode include:

  • Test case isolation. Provides the same level of test case isolation as non-batch mode if the framework restarts the binary/device after a crash with a reduced test filter (excluding finished and crashed test cases).
  • Granularity. Provides the same test-case granularity as non-batch mode.

The disadvantages of using batch mode include:

  • Maintenance cost. If the GTest logging format changes, all tests will break.
  • Confusion. A test case can print something similar to GTest progress format, which can confuse the format.

Because of these disadvantages, we have temporarily removed the option to use command line output. We will revisit this option in the future to improve the reliability of this function.

HostBinaryTest template

The HostBinaryTest template includes host-side executables that do not exist in other directories or in Python scripts. These tests include:

  • Compiled test binaries executable on host
  • Executable scripts in shell, Python, or other languages

One example is the VTS Security SELinux policy host-side test:

<configuration description="Config for VTS  Security SELinux policy host-side test cases">
    <test class="com.android.tradefed.testtype.VtsMultiDeviceTest">
        <option name="test-module-name" value="VtsSecuritySelinuxPolicyHost"/>
        <option name="binary-test-source" value="out/host/linux-x86/bin/VtsSecuritySelinuxPolicyHostTest" />
        <option name="binary-test-type" value="host_binary_test"/>

HostBinaryTest does not extend the BinaryTest template but does use similar test configurations. In the above example, the binary-test-source option specifies a host-side relative path to the test executable, and binary-test-type is host_binary_test. Similar to BinaryTest template, the binary filename is used as the test case name by default.

Extending existing templates

You can use templates directly in the test config to include non-Python tests or extend them in a subclass to handle specific test requirements. Templates in the VTS repo have the following extensions:

Figure 5. Extending existing templates in the VTS repo.

Developers are encouraged to extend any existing template for any specific test requirements. Common reasons to extend templates include:

  • Special test setup procedures, such as preparing a device with special commands.
  • Generating different test cases and test names.
  • Parsing results by reading command output or using other conditions.

To make it easier to extend existing templates, the templates contain methods specialized for each functionality. If you have improved designs for existing templates, we encourage you to contribute to the VTS code base.