Tethering Hardware Offload

Tethering offload enables devices to save power and improve performance by offloading the tethering traffic (over USB, Wi-Fi) to the hardware. The tethering traffic is offloaded by providing a direct path between the modem and the peripherals, bypassing the application processor.


Starting in Android 8.1, devices can use tethering offload to offload IPv4, IPv6, or IPv4+IPv6 forwarding to the hardware.

The offload feature does not need to offload all packets. The framework is capable of handling any packet in software. Control packets are typically processed in software. Because IPv4 ports are shared between tethered traffic and device traffic, IPv4 session setup/teardown packets (e.g., SYN/SYN+ACK, FIN) must be processed in software so the kernel can construct the flow state. The framework provides the control plane and state machines. It also provides the hardware with information on upstream and downstream interfaces/prefixes.

For IPv4, the hardware allows IPv4 network address translation (NAT) session setup packets to reach the CPU. The kernel creates NAT entries, and the HAL implementation observes the entries from the framework-provided file descriptors and handles these flows in hardware. This means the HAL implementation does not require CAP_NET_* because the HAL gets opened NF_NETLINK_CONNTRACK sockets from the framework. Periodically, the hardware sends NAT state updates for currently active flows to the framework, which refreshes the corresponding kernel connection tracking state entries.

For IPv6, the framework programs a list of IPv6 destination prefixes to which traffic must not be offloaded. All other tethered packets can be offloaded.

For data usage accounting, NetworkStatsService data usage polls causes the framework to request traffic stats from hardware. The framework also communicates data usage limits to the hardware via the HAL.

Hardware requirements

To implement tethering offload, your hardware must be capable of forwarding IP packets between the modem and Wi-Fi/USB without sending the traffic through the main processor.


To enable the tethering offload feature, you must implement the two following both a config HAL (IOffloadConfig) and a control HAL (IOffloadControl).

Config HAL: IOffloadConfig

The IOffloadConfig HAL starts the tethering offload implementation. The framework provides the HAL implementation with pre-connected NF_NETLINK_CONNTRACK sockets that the implementation can use to observe the IPv4 flows. Only forwarded flows must be accelerated.

Control HAL: IOffloadControl

The IOffloadControl HAL controls the offload implementation. The following methods must be implemented:

  • Start/stop offload hardware: Use initOffload/stopOffload and exempt local IP addresses or other networks from offload with setLocalPrefixes.
  • Set upstream interface, IPv4 address, and IPv6 gateways: Use setUpstreamParameters and configure downstream IP address ranges with addDownstream/removeDownstream.
  • Data usage accounting: Use getForwardedStats/setDataLimit.

Your vendor HAL must also send callbacks via the ITetheringOffloadCallback interface, which informs the framework of:

  • Asynchronous events such as offload being started and stopped (OffloadCallbackEvent)
  • NAT timeout updates, which must be sent periodically to indicate that a specific IPv4 flow contains traffic and must not be closed by the kernel


To validate your implementation of tethering offload, use manual or automated testing to verify tethering and Wi-Fi hotspot work as expected. The Vendor Test Suite (VTS) contains tests for the tethering offload HALs.