Google is committed to advancing racial equity for Black communities. See how.

Passpoint (Hotspot 2.0)

Passpoint is a Wi-Fi Alliance (WFA) protocol that helps users discover and authenticate to Wi-Fi hotspots to access the internet. Passpoint is based on Hotspot 2.0 technology.

Device support

To support Passpoint, device manufacturers need to implement hardware/interfaces/wifi/supplicant/1.0 or higher. The Wi-Fi HAL interface design language (HIDL) provided in the Android Open Source Project (AOSP) defines a HAL to the supplicant. The supplicant provides support for the 802.11u standard, specifically network discovery and selection features such as Generic Advertisement Service (GAS) and access network query protocol (ANQP).


Device manufacturers need to provide both framework and HAL/firmware support:

  • Framework: Enable Passpoint (requires a feature flag)
  • Firmware: Support for 802.11u

To support Passpoint, implement the Wi-Fi HAL and enable the feature flag for Passpoint. In located in device/<oem>/<device>, modify the PRODUCT_COPY_FILES environment variable to include support for the Passpoint feature:


All other requirements for supporting Passpoint are included in AOSP.


To validate your implementation of the Passpoint feature, use the set of unit tests and integration tests provided in the Android Comms Test Suite (ACTS).

Unit tests

Run the following Passpoint package unit tests.

Service tests:

% ./frameworks/opt/net/wifi/tests/wifitests/ -e package

Manager tests:

% ./frameworks/base/wifi/tests/ -e package

Integration tests (ACTS)

The ACTS Passpoint test suite, located in tools/test/connectivity/acts/tests/google/wifi/, implements a set of functional tests.

Passpoint R1

Android has supported Passpoint R1 since Android 6.0, allowing the provisioning of Passpoint R1 (release 1) credentials through web-based downloading of a special file that contains profile and credential information. The client automatically launches a special installer for the Wi-Fi information and allows the user to view parts of the information before accepting or declining the content.

The profile information contained in the file is used for matching to data retrieved from Passpoint-enabled access points, and the credentials are automatically applied for any matched network.

The Android reference implementation supports EAP-TTLS, EAP-TLS, EAP-SIM, EAP-AKA, and EAP-AKA'.

Download mechanism

The Passpoint configuration file must be hosted on a web server and should be protected with TLS (HTTPS) because it may contain clear text password or private key data. The content is made up of wrapped multipart MIME text represented in UTF-8 and encoded in base64 encoding per RFC-2045 section 6.8.

The following HTTP header fields are used by the client to automatically launch a Wi-Fi installer on the device:

  • Content-Type must be set to application/x-wifi-config.
  • Content-Transfer-Encoding must be set to base64.
  • Content-Disposition must not be set.

The HTTP method used to retrieve the file must be GET. Any time an HTTP GET from the browser receives a response with these MIME headers, the installation app is started. The download must be triggered by tapping on an HTML element such as a button (automatic redirects to a download URL aren't supported). This behavior is specific to Google Chrome; other web browsers may or may not provide similar functionality.

File composition

The base64-encoded content must consist of MIME multipart content with a Content-Type of multipart/mixed. The following parts make up the individual parts of the multipart content.

Part Content-Type (less quotes) Required Description
Profile application/x-passpoint-profile Always OMA-DM SyncML formatted payload containing the Passpoint R1 PerProviderSubscription formatted MO for HomeSP and Credential.
Trust certificate application/x-x509-ca-cert Required for EAP-TLS and EAP-TTLS A single X.509v3 base64-encoded certificate payload.
EAP-TLS key application/x-pkcs12 Required for EAP-TLS A base64-encoded PKCS #12 ASN.1 structure containing a client certificate chain with at least the client certificate and the associated private key. The PKCS 12 container as well as the private key and the certificates must all be in clear text with no password.

The Profile section must be transferred as base64-encoded, UTF-8-encoded XML text that specifies parts of the HomeSP and Credential subtrees in the Passpoint R2 Technical Specification Version 1.0.0, section 9.1.

The top-level node must be MgmtTree and the immediate subnode must be PerProviderSubscription. An example XML file appears in Example profile OMA-DM XML.

The following subtree nodes are used under HomeSP:

  • FriendlyName: Must be set; used as display text
  • FQDN: Required
  • RoamingConsortiumOI

The following subtree nodes are used under Credential:

  • Realm: Must be a nonempty string
  • UsernamePassword: Required for EAP-TTLS with the following nodes set:

    • Username: String that contains the username
    • Password: Base64-encoded string (set to cGFzc3dvcmQ=, the base64-encoded string for "password", in the example below)
    • EAPMethod/EAPType: Must be set to 21
    • EAPMethod/InnerMethod: Must be set to one of PAP, CHAP, MS-CHAP, or MS-CHAP-V2
  • DigitalCertificate: Required for EAP-TLS. The following nodes must be set:

    • CertificateType set to x509v3
    • CertSHA256Fingerprint set to the correct SHA-256 digest of the client certificate in the EAP-TLS key MIME section
  • SIM: Required for EAP-SIM, EAP-AKA, and EAP-AKA'. The EAPType field must be set to the appropriate EAP type and IMSI must match an IMSI of one of the SIM cards installed in the device at the time of provisioning. The IMSI string can either consist entirely of decimal digits to force full equality match, or of zero or more decimal digits followed by an asterisk (*) to relax the IMSI matching to prefix only. For example, the IMSI string 123* matches any SIM card with an IMSI starting with 123.

Example profile OMA-DM XML

<MgmtTree xmlns="syncml:dmddf1.2">
          <Value>Example Network</Value>

Auth advisory

Devices running Android 8.x or Android 9 with a Passpoint R1 EAP-SIM, EAP-AKA, or EAP-AKA' profile won't autoconnect to the Passpoint network. This issue affects users, carriers, and services by reducing the Wi-Fi offload.

Segment Impact Size of impact
Carriers and Passpoint service providers Increased load on cellular network. Any carrier using Passpoint R1.
Users Missed opportunity to autoconnect to Carrier Wi-Fi access points (APs), resulting in higher data costs. Any user with a device that runs on a carrier network supporting Passpoint R1.

Cause of failure

Passpoint specifies a mechanism to match an advertised (ANQP) service provider to a profile installed on the device. The following matching rules for EAP-SIM, EAP-AKA, and EAP-AKA' are a partial set of rules focusing on the EAP-SIM/AKA/AKA' failures:

If the FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name) matches
    then the service is a Home Service Provider.
Else: If the PLMN ID (3GPP Network) matches
    then the service is a Roaming Service Provider.

The second criterion was modified in Android 8.0:

Else: If the PLMN ID (3GPP Network) matches AND the NAI Realm matches
    then the service is a Roaming Service Provider.

With this modification, the system observed no match for previously working service providers, so Passpoint devices didn't autoconnect.


To work around the issue of the modified matching criteria, carriers and service providers need to add the network access identifier (NAI) realm to the information published by the Passpoint AP.

The recommended solution is for network service providers to implement a network-side workaround for the fastest time to deployment. A device-side workaround depends on OEMs picking up a changelist (CL) from AOSP and then updating devices in the field.

Network fix for carriers and Passpoint service providers

The network-side workaround requires reconfiguring the network to add the NAI realm ANQP element as specified below. The Passpoint specifications don't require the NAI realm ANQP element, but the addition of this property complies with the Passpoint specifications, so spec-compliant client implementations should not break.

  1. Add the NAI realm ANQP element.
  2. Set the NAI realm subfield to match the Realm of the profile installed on the device.
  3. Set the following information based on each EAP type:

    • EAP-TTLS: Set EAPMethod(21) and supported inner auth types (PAP, CHAP, MS-CHAP, or MS-CHAP-V2)
    • EAP-TLS: Set EAPMethod(13)
    • EAP-SIM: Set EAPMethod(18)
    • EAP-AKA: Set EAPMethod(23)
    • EAP-AKA': Set EAPMethod(50)
Device/AOSP fix for OEMs

To implement a device-side workaround, OEMs need to pick the patch CL aosp/718508. This patch can be applied on top of the following releases (doesn't apply to Android 10 or higher):

  • Android 9
  • Android 8.x

When the patch is picked up, OEMs need to update devices in the field.

Passpoint R2

Android 10 introduces support for Passpoint R2 features. Passpoint R2 implements online sign up (OSU), a standard method to provision new Passpoint profiles. Android 10 supports the provisioning of EAP-TTLS profiles using SOAP-XML.

The Passpoint R2 features supported in Android 10 only require AOSP code (no additional driver or firmware support is required). The AOSP code also includes a default implementation of the Passpoint R2 UI in the Settings application.

When Android detects a Passpoint R2 access point, the Android framework:

  1. Displays a list of the service providers in the Wi-Fi picker (in addition to displaying the SSIDs).
  2. Prompts the user to tap one of the service providers to set up a Passpoint profile.
  3. Walks the user through the Passpoint profile setup flow.
  4. Installs the resulting Passpoint profile on successful completion.
  5. Associates to the Passpoint network using the newly provisioned Passpoint profile.