Implementing Health

All healthd code has been refactored into health@2.0-impl and libhealthservice, then modified to implement health@2.0 HAL. These two libraries are linked statically by health@2.0-service, enabling it to do the work previously done by healthd (i.e. run the healthd_mainloop and do polling). In init, the health@2.0-service registers an implementation of the interface IHealth to hwservicemanager. When upgrading devices with an Android 8.x vendor image and an Android 9 framework, health@2.0 service might not be provided by the vendor image. This is enforced by the deprecation schedule.

To resolve this issue:

  1. healthd registers IHealth to hwservicemanager (despite being a system daemon). IHealth is added to the system manifest, with instance name "backup".
  2. Framework and storaged communicate with healthd via hwbinder instead of binder.
  3. Code for framework and storaged are changed to fetch the instance "default" if available, then "backup".
    • C++ client code uses the logic defined in libhealthhalutils.
    • Java client code uses the logic defined in HealthServiceWrapper.
  4. After IHealth/default is widely available and Android 8.1 vendor images are deprecated, IHealth/backup and healthd can be deprecated. For more details, see Deprecating health@1.0.

Board-specific build variables for healthd

BOARD_PERIODIC_CHORES_INTERVAL_* are board-specific variables used to build healthd. As part of system/vendor build split, board-specific values cannot be defined for system modules. In health@2.0, vendors can override these two values in healthd_mode_ops->init (by dropping libhealthservice dependency in health@2.0-service.<device> and re-implementing this function).

Static implementation library

Unlike other HAL implementation libraries, the implementation library health@2.0-impl is a static library to which health@2.0-service, charger, recovery, and legacy healthd link.

health@2.0.impl implements IHealth as described above and is meant to wrap around libbatterymonitor and libhealthd.BOARD. These users of health@2.0-impl must not use BatteryMonitor or the functions in libhealthd directly; instead, these calls should be replaced with calls into the Health class, an implementation of theIHealth interface. To generalize further, healthd_common code is also included in health@2.0-impl. The new healthd_common contains the rest of common code between health@2.0-service, charger, and healthd and calls into IHealth methods instead of BatteryMonitor.

Implementing Health 2.0 service

When implementing health@2.0 service for a device, if the default implementation is:

  • Sufficient for the device, use directly.
  • Not sufficient for the device, create the executable and include:

    #include <health2/service.h>
    int main() { return health_service_main(); }


  • If board-specific libhealthd:

    • Does exist, link to it.
    • Does not exist, provide empty implementations for healthd_board_init and healthd_board_battery_update functions.
  • If board-specific BOARD_PERIODIC_CHORES_INTERVAL_* variables:

    • Are defined, create a device-specific HealthServiceCommon.cpp (copied from hardware/interfaces/health/2.0/utils/libhealthservice) and customize it in healthd_mode_service_2_0_init.
    • Are not defined, link to libhealthservice statically.
  • If device:

    • Should implement getStorageInfo and getDiskStats APIs, provide the implementation in get_storage_info and get_disk_stats functions.
    • Should not implement those APIs, link to libstoragehealthdefault statically.
  • Update necessary SELinux permissions.

For details, refer to hardware/interfaces/health/2.0/

Health clients

health@2.0 has the following clients:

  • charger. The usage of libbatterymonitor and healthd_common code is wrapped in health@2.0-impl.
  • recovery. The linkage to libbatterymonitor is wrapped in health@2.0-impl. All calls to BatteryMonitor are replaced by calls into Health implementation class.
  • BatteryManager. BatteryManager.queryProperty(int id) was the only client of IBatteryPropertiesRegistrar.getProperty which was provided by healthd and directly reads /sys/class/power_supply.

    As a security consideration, apps are not allowed to call into health HAL directly. In Android 9, the binder service IBatteryPropertiesRegistrar is provided by BatteryService instead of healthd and BatteryService delegates the call to health HAL to retrieve the requested information.

  • BatteryService. In Android 9, BatteryService uses HealthServiceWrapper to determine the health service instance to use ("default" instance from vendor or "backup" instance from healthd). It then listens for health events via IHealth.registerCallback.

  • Storaged. In Android 9, storaged uses libhealthhalutils to determine the health service instance to use ("default" instance from vendor or "backup" instance from healthd). It then listens for health events via IHealth.registerCallback and retrieves storage information.

SELinux changes

The new health@2.0 HAL includes the following SELinux changes:

  • Adds health@2.0-service to file_contexts.
  • Allows system_server and storaged to use hal_health.
  • Allows system_server (BatteryService) to register batteryproperties_service (IBatteryPropertiesRegistrar).
  • Allows healthd to provide hal_health.
  • Removes rules that allow system_server / storaged to call into healthd via binder.
  • Removes rules that allow healthd to register batteryproperties_service (IBatteryPropertiesRegistrar).

For devices with their own implementation, some vendor SELinux changes may be necessary. Example:

# device/<manufacturer>/<device>/sepolicy/vendor/file_contexts
/vendor/bin/hw/android\.hardware\.health@2\.0-service.<device> u:object_r:hal_health_default_exec:s0

# device/<manufacturer>/<device>/sepolicy/vendor/hal_health_default.te
# Add device specific permissions to hal_health_default domain, especially
# if it links to board-specific libhealthd or implements storage APIs.

Kernel interfaces

The healthd daemon and the default implementation access the following kernel interfaces to retrieve battery information:

  • /sys/class/power_supply/*/capacity
  • /sys/class/power_supply/*/charge_counter
  • /sys/class/power_supply/*/charge_full
  • /sys/class/power_supply/*/current_avg
  • /sys/class/power_supply/*/current_max
  • /sys/class/power_supply/*/current_now
  • /sys/class/power_supply/*/cycle_count
  • /sys/class/power_supply/*/health
  • /sys/class/power_supply/*/online
  • /sys/class/power_supply/*/present
  • /sys/class/power_supply/*/status
  • /sys/class/power_supply/*/technology
  • /sys/class/power_supply/*/temp
  • /sys/class/power_supply/*/type
  • /sys/class/power_supply/*/voltage_max
  • /sys/class/power_supply/*/voltage_now

Any device-specific health HAL implementation that uses libbatterymonitor accesses these kernel interfaces by default, unless overridden in healthd_board_init(struct healthd_config*).

If these files are missing or are inaccessible from healthd or from the default service (e.g. the file is a symlink to a vendor-specific folder that denies access because of misconfigured SELinux policy), they may not function correctly. Hence, additional vendor-specific SELinux changes may be necessary even though the default implementation is used.


Android 9 includes new VTS tests written specifically for the health@2.0 HAL. If a device declares to provide health@2.0 HAL in the device manifest, it must pass the corresponding VTS tests. Tests are written for both the default instance (to ensure that the device implements the HAL correctly) and the backup instance (to ensure that healthd continues to function correctly before it is removed).