This page describes how to obtain boot images with kernel build artifacts for compatibility testing.
Obtain boot images
In AOSP, you can obtain prebuilt boot images from
The boot images are contained within the
aosp_arm64-img-*.zip archive in the
aosp_arm64 build target, as follows:
- android11-5.4 from the android11-gsi branch.
- android12-5.4 from the android12-gsi branch.
Both signed and unsigned boot images come in the following kernel compression options:
boot-5.4.imgis an uncompressed kernel.
boot-5.4-gzis a gzip compressed kernel.
boot-5.4-lz4is an lz4 compressed kernel.
For development purposes, you can use kernel prebuilts and GKI
boot images that export all symbols in the kernel (the symbols are
untrimmed). Untrimmed kernel prebuilts are generated in the
kernel_debug_aarch64 target for a particular kernel build on ci.android.com.
Untrimmed GKI boot images are generated in userdebug builds alongside the normal
trimmed GKI boot images and have filenames that end with
Obtain kernel build artifacts
When debugging issues in a GKI
boot.img file, it's useful to also have the
build artifacts associated with the kernel in that file. For example, you can
use the unstripped
vmlinux for debugging and the manifest for reproducing the
GKI kernel build locally. To obtain build artifacts:
Locate the build number for the kernel prebuilt that was used to create the GKI
boot.img. The build number appears at the end of the kernel version, preceded by the letters
ab. The following example shows the build number in bold:
[ 0.000000] Linux version 5.4.49-00947-g9d21bcd4897b-ab6638796
You can also determine the build number of the kernel by using
grepto find a boot image containing an uncompressed kernel:
grep -a "Linux version " boot-5.4.img
Open the kernel prebuilt build by using the build number in the following URL:
For example, using the build number from step 1, the URL is as follows:
When using an untrimmed build, replace
kernel_aarch64in the link with