Atest is a command line tool that allows users to build, install, and run Android tests locally, greatly speeding test re-runs without requiring knowledge of Trade Federation test harness command line options. This page explains how to use Atest to run Android tests.
For general information on writing tests for Android, see Android Platform Testing.
For information on the overall structure of Atest, see Atest Developer Guide.
For information on running tests in TEST_MAPPING files through Atest, see Running tests in TEST_MAPPING files.
And to add a feature to Atest, follow Atest Developer Workflow.
Setting up your environment
To run Atest, follow the steps in the sections below to set up your environment.
Set environment variable
From the root of the Android source checkout, run:
lunch command to bring up a menu of supported devices. Find the
device and run that command.
For example, if you have an ARM device connected, run the following command:
This sets various environment variables required for running Atest and adds the
Atest command to your
Atest commands take the following form:
atest test-to-run [optional-arguments]
Below are the most commonly used arguments. A complete list is available through
||Builds test targets. (default)|
||Installs test artifacts (APKs) on device. (default)|
||Runs the tests. (default)|
||Runs the tests on the specified device. One device can be tested at a time.|
||Disables test teardown and cleanup.|
||Shows the relevant info of the specified targets and exits.|
||Dry runs atest without building, installing and running tests in actuality|
||Forces a rebuild of the
||Waits for debugger prior to execution. Only for instrumentation tests.|
||Displays DEBUG level logging.|
||Loop-runs tests until the max iteration is reached. (10 by default)|
||Reruns all tests until a failure occurs or the max iteration is reached. (10 by default)|
||Reruns failed tests until passed or the max iteration is reached. (10 by default)|
||Automatically creates an AVD and runs tests on the virtual device.|
||Creates AVDs using the
||Specifies custom args for the test runners.|
||Runs the tests for all available device architectures.|
||Runs the test completely on the host
without a device.
(Note: Running a host test that requires a device with
||Shows the test result with flakes info.|
||Shows the test result in chronological order.|
||Prints the latest test result.|
For more information on
Specifying steps: build, install, or run.
Tests to run
You can run one or more tests using test-to-run. To run multiple tests, separate test references with spaces. For example:
atest test-to-run-1 test-to-run-2
Here are some examples:
atest FrameworksServicesTests CtsVideoTestCases
For more information on how to reference a test, see Identifying tests.
You can specify the test-to-run argument with the test's module name, Module:Class, class name, TF integration test, file path or package name.
To run an entire test module, use its module name. Input the name as it appears
LOCAL_PACKAGE_NAME variables in that test's
To run a single class within a module, use Module:Class. Module is the
same as described in Module name. Class is the name of the
test class in the
.java file and can be the fully qualified class name or the
To run a single class without explicitly stating a module name, use the class name.
Using the Module:Class reference is recommended whenever possible since Atest requires more time to search the complete source tree for potential matches if no module is stated.
Examples (ordered from fastest to slowest):
TF integration test
To run tests that are integrated directly into TradeFed (non-modules), input the
name as it appears in the output of the
tradefed.sh list configs command. For
To run the
To run the
You can run both module-based tests and integration-based tests by inputting the path to their test file or directory as appropriate. You can also run a single class by specifying the path to the class's Java file. Both relative and absolute paths are supported.
Example: Two ways to run the
CtsVideoTestCases module via path
Run module from Android repo-root:
From Android repo-root/cts/tests/video:
Example: Run a specific class within
CtsVideoTestCases module via path.
From Android repo-root:
Example: Run an integration test via path. From Android repo-root:
Atest supports searching tests by package name.
Specifying steps: Build, install, or run
You can specify which steps to run by using the
-t options. If
you don't specify an option, then all steps run.
- Build targets only:
atest -b test-to-run
- Run tests only:
atest -t test-to-run
- Install apk and run tests:
atest -it test-to-run
- Build and run, but don't install:
atest -bt test-to-run
Atest can force a test to skip the cleanup/teardown step. Many tests, such as
CTS, clean up the device after the test is run, so trying to rerun your test
-t will fail without the
--disable-teardown parameter. Use
-t to skip the test clean up step and test iteratively.
atest -d test-to-run
atest -t test-to-run
Running specific methods
You can run specific methods within a test class. Although the whole module needs to be built, this reduces the time needed to run the tests. To run specific methods, identify the class using any of the ways supported for identifying a class (Module:Class, file path, etc) and append the name of the method.
You can specify multiple methods with commas.
The following two examples show the preferred ways to run a single method,
testFlagChange. These examples are preferred over only using the class name
because specifying the module or the Java file location allows Atest to find the
test much faster:
From Android repo-root
Multiple methods can be run from different classes and modules:
atest FrameworksServicesTests:ScreenDecorWindowTests#testFlagChange,testRemoval ScreenDecorWindowTests#testMultipleDecors
Running multiple classes
To run multiple classes, separate them with spaces in the same way as running multiple tests. Atest builds and runs classes efficiently, so specifying a subset of classes in a module improves performance over running the whole module.
Two classes in the same module:
atest FrameworksServicesTests:ScreenDecorWindowTests FrameworksServicesTests:DimmerTests
Two classes in different modules:
atest FrameworksServicesTests:ScreenDecorWindowTests CtsVideoTestCases:VideoEncoderDecoderTest
Running native tests
Atest can run native tests. Use
-a to run the tests for all available device
architectures, which in this example are armeabi-v7a (ARM 32-bit) and arm64-v8a (ARM 64-bit).
atest -a libinput_tests inputflinger_tests
To select a specific native test to run, use colon (:) to specify the test name and hashtag (#) to further specify an individual method. For example, for the following test definition:
You can run the entire test using
or an individual test method using
Running tests in TEST_MAPPING
Atest can run tests in TEST_MAPPING files.
Run presubmit tests implicitly in TEST_MAPPING files in current, parent or specific directories.
Run presubmit tests in TEST_MAPPING files in current and parent directories:
Run presubmit tests in TEST_MAPPING files in /path/to/project and its parent directories:
atest --test-mapping /path/to/project
Run a specified test group in TEST_MAPPING files; available test groups are:
Run postsubmit tests in TEST_MAPPING files in current and parent directories:
Run tests from all groups in TEST_MAPPING files:
Run postsubmit tests in TEST_MAPPING files in /path/to/project and its parent directories
atest --test-mapping /path/to/project:postsubmit
Run mainline tests in TEST_MAPPING files in /path/to/project and its parent directories
atest --test-mapping /path/to/project:mainline-presubmit
Run tests in TEST_MAPPING files including sub-directories.
By default, atest only searches for tests in TEST_MAPPING files upwards(from the current or the given to its parent directories). If you also want to run tests in TEST_MAPPING files in the sub-directories, you can use option
--include-subdirs to force atest to include those tests as well.
Run presubmit tests in TEST_MAPPING files in the current, parent and sub-directories:
atest --include-subdirs /path/to/project
Running tests in iteration
To run tests in iteration, simply pass the
--iterations argument. Whether it passes or fails, atest won't stop testing until the max iteration is reached.
By default atest iterates 10 times, giving an integer to change the round of iteration.
atest test-to-run --iterations
atest test-to-run --iterations 5
Two approaches that assist users to detect flaky tests:
Approach 1: Run all tests until a failure occurs or the max iteration is reached.
- Stop when a failure occurs or the iteration reaches the 10th (by default) round.
atest test-to-run --rerun-until-failure
- Stop when a failure occurs or the iteration reaches the 100th round.
atest test-to-run --rerun-until-failure 100
Approach 2: Run only failed tests until passed or the max iteration is reached.
test-to-runhas five test cases and one of the tests fails. Run only the failed test 10 times or until the test passes.
atest test-to-run --retry-any-failure
- Stop running the failed test when it passes or reaches the 100th round.
atest test-to-run --retry-any-failure 100
Running tests on AVDs
Atest is able to run tests with the newly created AVD. Atest can build artifacts along with running
acloud create, and run tests after the AVD has been created successfully.
Start an AVD before running tests on that newly created device:
acloud create && atest test-to-run
atest test-to-run --start-avd
Start AVDs by specifing
acloud createarguments and run tests on that newly created device.
atest test-to-run --acloud-create "--build-id 6509363 --build-target aosp_cf_x86_phone-userdebug --branch aosp_master"
To get usage detail about the argument, run
acloud create --help.
Pass options to module
Atest is able to pass options to the modules. The brief format in Atest command line to add TradeFed command line option is
The [CUSTOM_ARGS] should follow the Tradefed command line option formats.
atest test-to-run -- [CUSTOM_ARGS]
Examples of passing test module options to target preparers or test runners defined in test config file:
atest test-to-run -- --module-arg module-name:option-name:option-value
atest GtsPermissionTestCases -- --module-arg GtsPermissionTestCases:ignore-business-logic-failure:true
Examples of passing options to the runner type or class:
atest test-to-run -- --test-arg test-class:option-name:option-value
atest CtsVideoTestCases -- --test-arg com.android.tradefed.testtype.JarHosttest:collect-tests-only:true
For more information on test only options, see Pass options to the modules