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Optimizing DTOs

This page discusses optimizations you can make to your DTO implementation, describes restrictions against overlaying the root node, and details how to configure compressed overlays in the DTBO image. It also provides sample implementation instructions and code.

Kernel command line

The original kernel command line in device tree is located in the chosen/bootargs node. The bootloader must concatenate this location with other sources of kernel command line:

/dts-v1/;

/ {
  chosen: chosen {
    bootargs = "...";
  };
};

DTO cannot concatenate values from main DT and overlay DT, so you must put the kernel command line of the main DT in chosen/bootargs and the kernel command line of the overlay DT in chosen/bootargs_ext. Bootloader can then concatenate these locations and pass the result to the kernel.

main.dts overlay.dts
/dts-v1/;

/ {
  chosen: chosen {
    bootargs = "...";
  };
};
/dts-v1/;
/plugin/;

&chosen {
  bootargs_ext = "...";
};

libufdt

While the latest libfdt supports DTO, is it recommended to use libufdt to implement DTO (AOSP source at platform/system/libufdt). libufdt builds a real tree structure (un-flattened device tree, or ufdt) from the flattened device tree (FDT), so it can improve the merging of two .dtb files from O(N2) to O(N), where N is the number of nodes in the tree.

Performance testing

In Google's internal testing, using libufdt on 2405 .dtb and 283 .dtbo DT nodes results in file sizes of 70,618 and 8,566 bytes after compilation. Compared with a DTO implementation ported from FreeBSD (124 ms runtime), libufdt DTO runtime is 10 ms.

Performance testing for Pixel devices compared libufdt and libfdt. The number of base nodes effect is similar, but includes the following differences:

  • 500 overlay (append or override) operations have 6x to 8x time difference
  • 1000 overlay (append or override) operations have 8x to 10x time difference

Example with appending count set to X:

Figure 1. Appending count is X

Example with overriding count set to X:

Figure 2. Overriding count is X

libufdt is developed with some libfdt APIs and data structures. When using libufdt, you must include and link libfdt (however, in your code you can use the libfdt API to operate DTB or DTBO).

libufdt DTO API

The main API to DTO in libufdt is as follows:

struct fdt_header *ufdt_apply_overlay(
        struct fdt_header *main_fdt_header,
        size_t main_fdt_size,
        void *overlay_fdt,
        size_t overlay_size);

The parameter main_fdt_header is the main DT and overlay_fdt is the buffer containing the contents of a .dtbo file. The return value is a new buffer containing the merged DT (or null in case of error). The merged DT is formated in FDT, which you can pass to the kernel when starting the kernel.

The new buffer from the return value is created by dto_malloc(), which you should implement when porting libufdt into bootloader. For reference implementations, refer to sysdeps/libufdt_sysdeps_*.c.

Root node restrictions

You cannot overlay a new node or property into the root node of main DT because overlay operations rely on labels. Because the main DT must define a label and the overlay DT assigns the nodes to be overlaid with labels, you cannot give a label for the root node (and therefore cannot overlay the root node).

SoC vendors must define the overlaying ability of main DT; ODM/OEMs can only append or override nodes with labels defined by the SoC vendor. As a workaround, you can define an odm node under the root node in base DT, enabling all ODM nodes in overlay DT to add new nodes. Alternatively, you could put all SoC-related nodes in the base DT into an soc node under root node as described below:

main.dts overlay.dts
/dts-v1/;

/ {
    compatible = "corp,bar";
    ...

    chosen: chosen {
        bootargs = "...";
    };

    /* nodes for all soc nodes */
    soc {
        ...
        soc_device@0: soc_device@0 {
            compatible = "corp,bar";
            ...
        };
        ...
    };

    odm: odm {
        /* reserved for overlay by odm */
    };
};
/dts-v1/;
/plugin/;

/ {
};

&chosen {
    bootargs_ex = "...";
};

&odm {
    odm_device@0 {
        ...
    };
    ...
};

Using compressed overlays

Android 9 adds support for using compressed overlays in the DTBO image when using version 1 of the device tree table header. When using DTBO header v1, the four least significant bits of the flags field in dt_table_entry indicate the compression format of the DT entry.

struct dt_table_entry_v1 {
  uint32_t dt_size;
  uint32_t dt_offset;  /* offset from head of dt_table_header */
  uint32_t id;         /* optional, must be zero if unused */
  uint32_t rev;        /* optional, must be zero if unused */
  uint32_t flags;      /* For version 1 of dt_table_header, the 4 least significant bits
                        of 'flags' will be used to indicate the compression
                        format of the DT entry as per the enum 'dt_compression_info' */
  uint32_t custom[3];  /* optional, must be zero if unused */
};

Currently, zlib and gzip compressions are supported.

enum dt_compression_info {
    NO_COMPRESSION,
    ZLIB_COMPRESSION,
    GZIP_COMPRESSION
};

Android 9 adds support for testing compressed overlays to the VtsFirmwareDtboVerification test to help you verify the correctness of overlay application.

Sample DTO implementation

The following instructions walk you through a sample implementation of DTO with libufdt (sample code below).

Sample DTO instructions

  1. Include libraries. To use libufdt, include libfdt for data structures and APIs:
    #include <libfdt.h>
    #include <ufdt_overlay.h>
    
  2. Load main DT and overlay DT. Load .dtb and .dtbo from storage into memory (exact steps depend on your design). At this point, you should have the buffer and size of .dtb/.dtbo:
    main_size = my_load_main_dtb(main_buf, main_buf_size)
    
    overlay_size = my_load_overlay_dtb(overlay_buf, overlay_buf_size);
    
  3. Overlay the DTs:
    1. Use ufdt_install_blob() to get the FDT header for main DT:
      main_fdt_header = ufdt_install_blob(main_buf, main_size);
      main_fdt_size = main_size;
      
    2. Call ufdt_apply_overlay() to DTO to get a merged DT in FDT format:
      merged_fdt = ufdt_apply_overlay(main_fdt_header, main_fdt_size,
                                      overlay_buf, overlay_size);
      
    3. Use merged_fdt to get the size of dtc_totalsize():
      merged_fdt_size = dtc_totalsize(merged_fdt);
      
    4. Pass the merged DT to start the kernel:
      my_kernel_entry(0, machine_type, merged_fdt);
      

Sample DTO code

#include <libfdt.h>
#include <ufdt_overlay.h>

…

{
  struct fdt_header *main_fdt_header;
  struct fdt_header *merged_fdt;

  /* load main dtb into memory and get the size */
  main_size = my_load_main_dtb(main_buf, main_buf_size);

  /* load overlay dtb into memory and get the size */
  overlay_size = my_load_overlay_dtb(overlay_buf, overlay_buf_size);

  /* overlay */
  main_fdt_header = ufdt_install_blob(main_buf, main_size);
  main_fdt_size = main_size;
  merged_fdt = ufdt_apply_overlay(main_fdt_header, main_fdt_size,
                                  overlay_buf, overlay_size);
  merged_fdt_size = dtc_totalsize(merged_fdt);

  /* pass to kernel */
  my_kernel_entry(0, machine_type, merged_fdt);
}