Modular system components

Android 10 or higher modularizes some Android system components and enables them to be updated outside of the normal Android release cycle. End-user devices can receive updates to these modularized system components from the Google Play Store infrastructure or through a partner-provided over-the-air (OTA) mechanism.

About modular system components

Modular system components enable Google and Android partners to distribute updates broadly, quickly, and seamlessly to end-user devices in a nonintrusive manner. For example, the combination of media codec fragmentation and critical bugs can dramatically slow app adoption and user engagement. Frequent updates to media-related modules can reduce codec fragmentation to make media app behavior more consistent across different Android devices and fix critical bugs to build user trust.


Android 10 or higher converts selected system components into modules, some of which use the APEX container format (introduced in Android 10) and some of which use the APK format. The modular architecture enables system components to be updated with critical bug fixes and other improvements as needed, without affecting lower-level vendor implementations or higher-level apps and services.

Modular system components

Figure 1. Modularized system components

Module updates don't introduce new APIs. They use only the SDK and System APIs guaranteed by the Compatibility Test Suite (CTS), communicate only with each other, and use only stable C API or stable AIDL interfaces.

Updated modular system components can be packaged together and pushed to end-user devices, either by Google (using the Google Play Store infrastructure) or by the Android partner (using a partner-provided OTA mechanism). The module package installs (and rolls back) atomically; either all modules that need to be updated are updated or none are updated.

Available modules

Module name Package name Type Release introduced
AdServices Multiple Multiple Android 13
adbd APEX Android 11
AppSearch APEX Android 13
ART APEX Android 12
Bluetooth APEX Android 13
CellBroadcast APEX Android 11
Conscrypt APEX Android 10
Device Scheduling APEX Android 12
DNS Resolver APEX Android 10
DocumentsUI APK Android 10
ExtServices APK (Android 10)
APEX (Android 11)
Android 10
IPsec/IKEv2 Library APEX Android 11
Media Media:

Media Codecs:
APEX Android 10 (extractors, MediaSession API)
Android 11 (MediaParser API)
MediaProvider APEXAndroid 11
ModuleMetadata APK Android 10
Network Stack Network Stack Permission Configuration:

Captive Portal Login:

Network Components:
APK Android 10
NNAPI Runtime APK Android 11
OnDevicePersonalization Runtime Multiple Multiple Android 13
PermissionController APK Android 10
SDK Extensions APEX Android 11
Statsd APEX Android 11
Tethering APEX Android 11
Time Zone Data APEX Android 10
UWB APEX Android 13
Wi-Fi APEX Android 11