Test mapping

This is a brief introduction of test mapping and an explanation of how to get started configuring tests in the Android Open Source Project (AOSP).

About test mapping

Test mapping is a Gerrit-based approach that lets developers create pre- and post-submit test rules directly in the Android source tree and leave the decisions of branches and devices to be tested to the test infrastructure. Test mapping definitions are JSON files named TEST_MAPPING that you can place in any source directory.

Atest can use the TEST_MAPPING files to run presubmit tests in the associated directories. With test mapping, you can add the same set of tests to presubmit checks with a minimal change inside the Android source tree.

See these examples:

Test mapping relies on the Trade Federation (TF) test harness for tests execution and results reporting.

Define test groups

Test mapping groups tests with a test group. The name of a test group can be any string. For example, presubmit can be the name for a group of tests to run when validating changes. And postsubmit can be the tests used to validate the builds after changes are merged.

Package build script rules

In order for the Trade Federation test harness to run test modules for a given build, these modules must have test_suites set for Soong or LOCAL_COMPATIBILITY_SUITE set for Make to one of these two suites:

  • general-tests is for tests that don't depend on device-specific capabilities (such as vendor-specific hardware that most devices don't have). Most tests should be in the general-tests suite, even if they're specific to one ABI or bitness or hardware features like HWASan (there's a separate test_suites target for each ABI), and even if they have to run on a device.
  • device-tests is for tests that depend on device-specific capabilities. Typically these tests are found under vendor/. Device-specific refers only to capabilities that are unique to a device, so this applies to JUnit tests as well as GTest tests (which should usually be marked as general-tests even if they're ABI specific).

Examples:

Android.bp: test_suites: ["general-tests"],
Android.mk: LOCAL_COMPATIBILITY_SUITE := general-tests

Configure tests to run in a test suite

For a test to run inside of a test suite, the test:

  • Must not have any build provider.
  • Must clean up after it's finished, for example, by deleting any temporary files generated during the test.
  • Must change system settings to the default or original value.
  • Shouldn't assume a device is in a certain state, for example, root ready. Most tests don't require root privilege to run. If a test must require root, it should specify that with RootTargetPreparer in its AndroidTest.xml, as in the following example:

    <target_preparer class="com.android.tradefed.targetprep.RootTargetPreparer"/>
    

Create test mapping files

For the directory requiring test coverage, add a TEST_MAPPING JSON file resembling the example. These rules ensure that the tests run in presubmit checks when any files are touched in that directory or any of its subdirectories.

Follow an example

Here is a sample TEST_MAPPING file (it's in JSON format but with comments supported):

{
  "presubmit": [
    // JUnit test with options and file patterns.
    {
      "name": "CtsWindowManagerDeviceTestCases",
      "options": [
        {
          "include-annotation": "android.platform.test.annotations.RequiresDevice"
        }
      ],
      "file_patterns": ["(/|^)Window[^/]*\\.java", "(/|^)Activity[^/]*\\.java"]
    },
    // Device-side GTest with options.
    {
      "name" : "hello_world_test",
      "options": [
        {
          "native-test-flag": "\"servicename1 servicename2\""
        },
        {
          "native-test-timeout": "6000"
        }
      ]
    }
    // Host-side GTest.
    {
      "name" : "net_test_avrcp",
      "host" : true
    }
  ],
  "postsubmit": [
    {
      "name": "CtsWindowManagerDeviceTestCases"
    }
  ],
  "imports": [
    {
      "path": "frameworks/base/services/core/java/com/android/server/am"
    }
  ]
}

Set attributes

In the example, presubmit and postsubmit are the names of each test group. See Define test groups for more information about test groups.

You can set the name of the test module or Trade Federation integration test name (resource path to the test XML file, for example, uiautomator/uiautomator-demo) in the value of the name attribute. Note the name field can't use the class name or the test method name. To narrow down the tests to run, use options such as include-filter. See (include-filter sample usage).

The host setting of a test indicates whether the test is a deviceless test running on host or not. The default value is false, meaning the test requires a device to run. The supported test types are HostGTest for GTest binaries and HostTest for JUnit tests.

The file_patterns attribute lets you set a list of regular expression strings for matching the relative path of any source code file (relative to the directory containing the TEST_MAPPING file). In the example, test CtsWindowManagerDeviceTestCases runs in presubmit only when a Java file starts with Window or Activity, which exists in the same directory as the TEST_MAPPING file or any of its subdirectories, is changed. Backslashes `` need to be escaped as they're in a JSON file.

The imports attribute lets you include tests in other TEST_MAPPING files without copying the content. The TEST_MAPPING files in the parent directories of the imported path are also included. Test mapping allows nested imports; this means two TEST_MAPPING files can import each other, and test mapping can merge the included tests.

The options attribute contains additional Tradefed command line options.

To get a complete list of available options for a given test, run:

tradefed.sh run commandAndExit [test_module] --help

Refer to Option handling in Tradefed for more details about how options work.

Run tests with Atest

To execute the presubmit test rules locally:

  1. Go to the directory containing the TEST_MAPPING file.
  2. Run the command:

    atest
    

All presubmit tests configured in the TEST_MAPPING files of the current directory and its parent directories are run. Atest locates and runs two tests for presubmit (A and B).

This is the most straightforward way to run presubmit tests in TEST_MAPPING files in the current working directory (CWD) and parent directories. Atest locates and uses the TEST_MAPPING file in CWD and all of its parent directories.

Structure source code

This example shows how you can configure TEST_MAPPING files across the source tree:

src
├── project_1
│   └── TEST_MAPPING
├── project_2
│   └── TEST_MAPPING
└── TEST_MAPPING

Content of src/TEST_MAPPING:

{
  "presubmit": [
    {
      "name": "A"
    }
  ]
}

Content of src/project_1/TEST_MAPPING:

{
  "presubmit": [
    {
      "name": "B"
    }
  ],
  "postsubmit": [
    {
      "name": "C"
    }
  ],
  "other_group": [
    {
      "name": "X"
    }
  ]}

Content of src/project_2/TEST_MAPPING:

{
  "presubmit": [
    {
      "name": "D"
    }
  ],
  "import": [
    {
      "path": "src/project_1"
    }
  ]}

Specify target directories

You can specify a target directory to run tests in TEST_MAPPING files in that directory. The following command runs two tests (A, B):

atest --test-mapping src/project_1

Run postsubmit test rules

You can also use this command to run the postsubmit test rules defined in TEST_MAPPING in src_path (default to CWD) and its parent directories:

atest [--test-mapping] [src_path]:postsubmit

Run only tests that require no device

You can use option --host for Atest to run only those tests configured against the host that require no device. Without this option, Atest runs both tests, those requiring device and theose running on host and require no device. The tests are run in two separate suites:

atest [--test-mapping] --host

Identify test groups

You can specify test groups in the Atest command. The following command runs all postsubmit tests related to files in the src/project_1 directory, which contains only one test (C).

Or you can use :all to run all tests regardless of group. The following command runs four tests (A, B, C, X):

atest --test-mapping src/project_1:all

Include subdirectories

By default, running tests in TEST_MAPPING with Atest runs only presubmit tests configured in the TEST_MAPPING file in CWD (or given directory) and its parent directories. If you want to run tests in all TEST_MAPPING files in the subdirectories, use the option --include-subdir to force Atest to include those tests, too.

atest --include-subdir

Without the --include-subdir option, Atest runs only test A. With the --include-subdir option, Atest runs two tests (A, B).

Line-level comment supported

You can add a line-level // format comment to flesh out the TEST_MAPPING file with a description of the setting that follows. ATest and Trade Federation preprocess TEST_MAPPING to a valid JSON format without comments. To keep the JSON file clean, only the line-level // format comment is supported.

Example:

{
  // For presubmit test group.
  "presubmit": [
    {
      // Run test on module A.
      "name": "A"
    }
  ]
}